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Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a pre- fragmented high explosive grenade
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
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2006 (English)In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 81, no 3, 461-475 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organisations today face increasing environmental constraints, e.g. in the form of legal and customer requirements; the defence sector is no exception. There is a need to evaluate and limit environmental effects of defence activities and materiel. In this study we used quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a method for simplified LCA (the Material, Energy, Chemicals and Others (MECO) method) to assess the environmental impacts of a grenade. The aims of the study are to identify aspects in the grenade's life-cycle that have the largest environmental impact, suggest improvement possibilities, make a comparison between different approaches for waste management of munitions, and to perform a demonstrative case for the application of LCA to munitions. Significant environmental aspects of the grenade's life-cycle include use of metals, use of fossil fuels, and detonation outdoors. The study shows that an LCA can be used to analyse environmental impacts from munitions. The simplified LCA gave information that is complementary to the quantitative LCA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 81, no 3, 461-475 p.
Keyword [en]
Defence materiel, Life cycle assessment (LCA), MECO, Munition, Simplified life cycle assessment
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8252DOI: 10.1002/jctb.1446ISI: 000235898100031Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33644780121OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8252DiVA: diva2:13525
Note

QC 20100616 QC 20111003. Conference: 6th International Conference on Ecobalance. Tsukuba, JAPAN. OCT 25-27, 2004

Available from: 2008-04-23 Created: 2008-04-23 Last updated: 2013-12-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Life Cycle Thinking in Environmentally Preferable Procurement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Thinking in Environmentally Preferable Procurement
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Products generate environmental impacts during their life cycle by consuming raw materials and energy, releasing emissions and producing waste. A procurement organisation can be a considerable driving force for more environmentally friendly products e.g. by requiring that products meet certain environmental criteria. The scope for environmental consideration when procuring materiel can be limited by lack of reliable information about the environmental characteristics of the product or service. Different types of tools (e.g. eco-labels, guidelines, checklists and tools for environmental assessment) can contribute some knowledge and help identify environmentally preferable products.

This thesis focuses on use of tools for environmental consideration in Swedish defence acquisition but the results are also relevant for other organisations, since the procurement process analysed is rather general and the legal requirements are similar for other public organisations in Europe. A Swedish government decision in 1998 requires the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) and Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) to take environmental consideration in all phases of the acquisition process. The importance of a life cycle perspective is stressed in several SAF and FMV environmental documents. The starting point of this thesis was that environmental consideration should be taken in the Swedish acquisition of defence materiel, considering the whole life cycle of products, with the aim of formulating proposals on environmentally friendly procurement. Some Ecodesign tools were reviewed and evaluated, two methods for simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were compared, tools and methodology were recommended, and used to study military materiel, and environmental Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was examined.

In environmental work lacking a life cycle perspective, the most significant aspects risk being overlooked. Use of quantitative and/or simplified LCAs and inclusion of environmental costs in LCC are therefore recommended. LCA proved an appropriate tool for involving environmental consideration in the acquisition process, since it focuses on products and their life cycle. The MECO method proved best for simplified LCA. These suggested methods were evaluated by interviews with actors in the acquisition process. Four areas for LCA use in acquisition were identified: learning about environmental aspects of products; fulfilling customer requirements; setting environmental requirements; and choosing between alternatives.

The interviewees were interested in using LCA, but there is a need for an initiative by one or several actors if the method is to be used regularly and the results must be communicated within the organisations involved in procurement. Environmental consideration should be taken early in the acquisition process and environmental matters integrated into other activities of the organisations involved. Environmental costs are not explicitly considered in the LCCs used by the interviewees today, but internal environmental costs should be included. Costs likely to be internal can also be included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008
Series
Trita-SOM , ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2008-05
Keyword
Life Cycle Thinking, Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Procurement, Life Cycle Costing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4705 (URN)978-91-7178-910-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-09, M3, Brinellvägen 64, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100616Available from: 2008-04-23 Created: 2008-04-22 Last updated: 2012-01-18Bibliographically approved

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