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Treating metadata as annotations: separating the content mark-up from the content
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
Center for IT in Northern Sweden, Umeå.
2007 (English)In: International Journal:  Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1868-8799, E-ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 2, no 1, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of digital learning resources creates an increasing need for semantic metadata, describing the whole resource, as well as parts of resources. Traditionally, schemas such as Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) have been used to add semantic markup for parts of resources. This is not sufficient for use in a ”metadata ecology”, where metadata is distributed, coherent to different Application Profiles, and added by different actors. A new methodology, where metadata is “pointed in” as annotations, using XPointers, and RDF is proposed. A suggestion for how such infrastructure can be implemented, using existing open standards for metadata, and for the web is presented. We argue that such methodology and infrastructure is necessary to realize the decentralized metadata infrastructure needed for a “metadata ecology".

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 2, no 1, 1-7 p.
Keyword [en]
metadata, XML, XPointers, content markup, Semantic Web
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8294OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8294DiVA: diva2:13575
Note

QC 20100903

Available from: 2008-04-29 Created: 2008-04-29 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modularization of the Learning Architecture: Supporting Learning Theories by Learning Technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modularization of the Learning Architecture: Supporting Learning Theories by Learning Technologies
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores the role of modularity for achieving a better adaptation of learning technology to pedagogical requirements. In order to examine the interrelations that occur between pedagogy and computer science, a theoretical framework rooted in both fields is applied.

During the twentieth century, the focus of pedagogical research and practice has gone from behaviourism, via cognitivism, to learning theory based on constructivism. Changes in learning objectives and an increasing cognitive complexity of learning tasks are likely to have contributed to this evolvement. This puts new requirements on the design and implementation of pedagogical instruction (instructional design) and its application to learning technology. Using instructional design together with technology requires the pedagogical process to be predetermined, which is partly contradicted by the nature of constructivism. Many constructivist approaches require social interaction and dynamic learning environments that can adapt to changes that are required by different pedagogical approaches. Those requirements have been met using modular approaches for content, i.e., learning objects, implemented in non-modular web-based virtual learning environments (VLE), like learning management systems (LMS).

This thesis argues that modularity promotes adaptability and adaptivity, but that the current practice of using learning objects and LMSes is too restricted to fulfill the increasing needs for flexibility. The reasons are that the learning object concept is still too ill-defined to function as a component framework, and there are complex and unsolved issues regarding the representation of pedagogical instructions. This is especially complicated from a constructivist perspective where pedagogical instructions cannot always be assumed to be predetermined, which needs to be encountered for by technology.

This thesis contributes to the research field by suggesting a modular approach that includes both digital learning content and VLEs. This was accomplished by suggesting a taxonomy and an abstract model for learning objects, which address both functional and technical properties. Furthermore, six action areas are suggested in order to enhance the technical quality of learning objects.

Using the abstract model as a basis, the software architecture of learning objects was addressed in order to separate data, logics and presentation – including the separation of the representation of pedagogical process from the components that implement it. This facilitates the combination of modularity and representation of pedagogical instruction that utilizes machine-processable semantics, enabling the utilization of modularity at composition time as well as at run-time. This approach has resulted in a SOA-based architecture framework that has been used as blueprint for implementing two prototypes of modular VLEs, using different technology platforms. The objective was to verify the taxonomy, the abstract model, and the architecture framework. The experiments have shown that it is possible to incorporate learning content and the VLE into the same modular framework in order to provide the flexibility needed for learning technology to better adapt to changing pedagogical requirements.

The experiments have also shown how pedagogical processes benefit from being represented using machine-processable semantics in being able to better utilize the flexibility offered by modularity in keeping the components of the VLE together by representing context and structure. This has been illustrated by adding semantic annotations that were used to dynamically connect pedagogical instruction to annotated learning objects, using machine-processable semantics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. vii, 121 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2008:06
Keyword
Computer Science, Technology Enhanced Learning, e-learning, Semantic Web, Service Orientation, Learning Object, Virtual Learning Environment
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4712 (URN)978-91-7178-943-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-20, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100903Available from: 2008-04-29 Created: 2008-04-29 Last updated: 2010-09-03Bibliographically approved

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