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A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project: From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. (Energiprocesser, Energy Processes)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. (Energiprocesser, Energy Processes)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. (Energiprocesser, Energy Processes)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0635-7372
2007 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 32, no 17, 4295-4305 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.

Main results are:

The passengers' willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses in public transport was still low after one year of operation.

Concern about safety is not an issue among passengers or drivers.

The acceleration was rated as inferior to that of regular buses by 50% of the drivers; this differs from earlier findings in Stockholm.

The operators were pleased with the reliability of the buses and the trust in the new technology grew stronger during the project period. Main problems were lack of spare parts and insufficient information sharing due to confidentiality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 32, no 17, 4295-4305 p.
Keyword [en]
hydrogen; fuel cell; buses; attitude; acceptance; CUTE
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8321DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2007.07.050ISI: 000251977800026Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-36549011685OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8321DiVA: diva2:13612
Note

QC 20100721

Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2016-05-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Several aspects make today’s transport system non-sustainable:

• Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems.

• Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability.

• Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas.

In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits.

This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated.

One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell bus showed the long-term potential of fuel cells, advanced auxiliaries and hybrid-electric powertrains, but technologies applied in that bus are not yet viable in terms of cost or robustness over the service life of a bus. Results from the EU-project CUTE show that hydrogen fuelled fuel cell buses are viable for real-life operation. Successful operation and public acceptance show that focus on robustness and cost in vehicle design were key success factors, despite the resulting poor fuel economy. Hybrid-electric powertrains are feasible in stop-and-go city operation. Fuel consumption can be reduced, comfort improved, noise lowered and the main power source downsized and operated less dynamically. The potential for design improvements due to flexible component packaging is implemented in the Scania hybrid concept bus. This bus and the framework for its hybrid management system are discussed in this thesis.

The development of buses for a more sustainable urban transport should be made in small steps to secure technical and economical realism, which both are needed to guarantee commercialisation and volume of production. This is needed for alternative products to have a significant influence. Hybrid buses with internal combustion engines running on renewable fuel is tomorrow’s technology, which paves the way for plug-in hybrid, battery electric and fuel cell hybrid vehicles the day after tomorrow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. xii, 76 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:30
Keyword
acceptance, analysis, auxiliary system, bus, Clean Urban Transport for Europe, concept, CUTE, demonstration, driver, drive cycle, duty cycle, energy flow, evaluation, fuel cell, heavy duty vehicle, hybrid management, hybrid vehicle, hydrogen, passenger, PEM, safety, Sankey diagram, series hybrid, sustainable, test, urban transport, vehicle simulation, acceptans, analys, hjälpaggregat, buss, Clean Urban Transport for Europe, koncept, CUTE, demonstration, körcykel, förare, energiflöde, utvärdering, bränslecell, tunga fordon, hybridsystemkontroll, hybridfordon, vätgas, passagerare, PEM, säkerhet, Sankey-diagram, seriehybrid, uthållig, hållbar, test, stadstransport, fordonssimulering
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4721 (URN)978-91-7178-940-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100722Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2010-07-22Bibliographically approved
2. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

With growing awareness of global warming and fear of political instability caused by oil depletion, the need for a society with a sustainable energy system has been brought to the fore. A promising technology often mentioned as a key component in such a system is the fuel cell technology, i.e. the energy conversion technology in focus in this thesis. The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system.

Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future.

The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When reliability and durability are achieved fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. viii, 70 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:61
Keyword
Assessment, CUTE, Demonstration projects, Emerging technology, Evaluation, Fuel cell buses, Fuel cell systems, Fuel cells, Hype, Interdisciplinary, Niche markets, PEM, Radical technologies, SOFC, Strategic niche markets, Sustainability
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9192 (URN)978-91-7415-108-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-24, F3 (Flodissalen), Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Energy Systems ProgrammeClean Urban Transport for EuropeGlashusEtt
Note
QC 20100909Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-02 Last updated: 2010-09-09Bibliographically approved

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