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Cycle Life Evaluation of 3 Ah LixMn2O4-based Lithium-Ion Secondary Cells for Low-Earth-Orbit Satellites: I. Full Cell Results
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
Adv Engn Serv Co Ltd, Tsukuba.
NEC Tokin Corp, Kanagawa.
NEC Tokin Corp, Kanagawa.
Show others and affiliations
2008 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, Vol. 185, no 2, 1444-1453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Cycle life performance under both orbital and terrestrial conditions must be investigated in order to evaluate any inadvertent effects due to the former and the validity of the latter, with a successful comparison allowing for the extension of terrestrial experimental matrices in order to identify the effects of ageing. The orbital Performance of LixMn2O4-based pouch cells onboard the microsatellite REIMEI was monitored and compared with terrestrial experiments, with the cells found to be unaffected by orbital conditions. A lifetime matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0,20,40%) and temperatures (25, 45 degrees C) was undertaken with periodic reference performance tests. A decrease in both the cell end of-discharge cycling voltage and capacity was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. Impedance spectra measured for all ageing conditions indicated that the increase was small, manifested in a state-of-charge dependent increase of the high-frequency semi-circle and a noticeable increase in the high-frequency real axis intercept. An evaluation of the change of both the resistance and capacity of 3 Ah cells led to the development of a potential prognostic state-of-health indicator. The use of elevated temperatures to accelerate cell ageing was validated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 185, no 2, 1444-1453 p.
Keyword [en]
Lithium-ion; LEO satellite; Ageing
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8330DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.07.070ISI: 000261748900125Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-56249138923OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8330DiVA: diva2:13622
Note
QC 20100618. Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20100708).Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Diagnosis of the Lifetime Performance Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Focus on Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnosis of the Lifetime Performance Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Focus on Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite Applications
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries are a possible choice for the energy storage system onboard hybrid electric vehicles and low-earth-orbit satellites, but lifetime performance remains an issue. The challenge is to diagnose the effects of ageing and then investigate the dependence of the magnitude of the deterioration on different accelerating factors (e.g. state-of-charge (SOC), depth-of-discharge (DOD) and temperature).

Lifetime studies were undertaken incorporating different accelerating factors for two different applications: (1) coin cells with a LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based positive electrode were studied with a EUCAR power-assist HEV cycle, and (2) laminated commercial cells with a LixMn2O4-based positive electrode were studied with a low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite cycle. Cells were disassembled and the electrochemical performance of harvested electrodes measured with two- and three-electrode cells. The LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based electrode impedance results were interpreted with a physically-based three-electrode model incorporating justifiable effects of ageing.

The performance degradation of the cells with nickelate chemistry was independent of the cycling condition or target SOC, but strongly dependent on the temperature. The positive electrode was identified as the main source of impedance increase, with surface films having a composition that was independent of the target SOC, but with more of the same species present at higher temperatures. Furthermore, impedance results were shown to be highly dependent on both the electrode SOC during the measurement and the pressure applied to the electrode surface. An ageing hypothesis incorporating a resistive layer on the current collector and a local contact resistance (dependent on SOC) between the carbon and active material, both possibly leading to particle isolation, was found to be adequate in fitting the harvested aged electrode impedance data.

The performance degradation of the cells with manganese chemistry was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. The impedance increase was small, manifested in a SOC-dependent increase of the high-frequency semicircle and a noticeable increase of the high-frequency real axis intercept. The positive electrode had a larger decrease in capacity and increase in the magnitude of the high-frequency semi-circle (particularly at high intercalated lithium-ion concentrations) in comparison with the negative electrode. This SOC-dependent change was associated with cells cycled for either extended periods of time or at higher temperatures with a large DOD. An observed change of the cycling behaviour in the second potential plateau for the LixMn2O4-based electrode provided a possible kinetic-based explanation for the change of the high-frequency semi-circle.

Abstract [sv]

Litiumjonbatteriet är en möjlig kandidat för energilagring i hybridfordon och i satelliter i låg omloppsbana, men än så länge är livslängden på batterierna ett problem. Utmaningen ligger i att kunna förstå hur batteriet åldras genom att utforska hur åldringsprocessen accelereras av faktorer som laddningstillstånd, urladdningsdjup och temperatur.

Livslängdsstudier för två olika typer av batterier tänkta för olika applikationer utfördes: (1) knappceller med positiva LixNi0,8Co0,15Al0,05O2-baserade elektroder studerades med en effektstödd (power-assist) hybridcykel från EUCAR, och (2) laminerade kommersiella celler med positiva LixMn2O4-baserade elektroder studerades med en satellitcykel, avsedd för en satellit med låg omloppsbana. Cellerna öppnades och de uttagna elektrodernas elektrokemiska egenskaper utvärderades i två- och tre-elektroduppställningar. Resultaten från elektrokemiska impedansmätningar för den positiva LixNi0,8Co0,15Al0,05O2-baserade elektroden tolkades med hjälp av en fysikalisk tre-elektrod modell som tog hänsyn till de i litteraturen främst föreslagna effekterna av åldring.

Prestandadegraderingen av celler med nickelkemi var oberoende av cykel och laddningstillståndet där åldringen skedde, men starkt beroende av temperaturen. Den positiva elektroden visade sig vara den största orsaken till impedansökningen i batteriet. Ytfilmerna på den positiva elektroden hade en sammansättning som var oberoende av laddningstillståndet men beroende av temperaturen. Impedansresultaten från de uttagna elektroderna var starkt beroende av både laddningstillstånd och yttre tryck på elektrodytan. Det visade sig att det var tillräckligt att ta hänsyn till ett resistivt skikt på strömtilledaren och en lokal kontaktresistans mellan kolet och det aktiva materialet (som är beroende av laddningstillståndet) för att anpassa modellen till impedansdata mätt på de uttagna elektroderna.

Prestandadegraderingen av celler med mangankemi påskyndades av både högre temperaturer och högre urladdningsdjup. Impedansen ökade något, då både högfrekvenshalvcirkeln och högfrekvensintercepten ändrades. Positiva elektroden hade en större degradering i kapaciteten och en större ökning i magnituden av högfrekvenshalvcirkeln (speciellt vid högre litiumjon koncentrationer i elektroden) jämfört med den negativa elektroden. Denna laddningstillståndsberoende impedans-ökning var kopplad till celler som hade cyklats under en längre tid eller vid en högre temperatur och med ett högt urladdningsdjup. Ökningen i magnituden av högfrekvenshalvcirkeln skulle kunna vara relaterad till kinetiska begränsningar eftersom cyklingsbeteendet vid andra spänningsplatån ändrades samtidigt för de LixMn2O4-baserade elektroderna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 132 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:13
Keyword
lithium-ion battery, LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LixMn2O4, LiyC6, ageing, three-electrode measurements, impedance modelling, surface film characterisation, hybrid electric vehicle, low-earth-orbit satellite, litiumjonbatteri, åldring, treelektroduppställning, impedansmodell, ytfilmskarakterisering, hybridfordon, satelliter
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4722 (URN)978-91-7178-875-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Entreplan, KTH, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100621Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-07-13Bibliographically approved

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