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Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: Is plant chemistry the explanation?
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. (Ecological Chemistry Group)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. (Ecological Chemistry Group)
School of Industrial Technology and Management, Dalarna University.
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Show others and affiliations
2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 23, no 4, 299-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Miniseedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant alpha-pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this miniseedling effect remains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 23, no 4, 299-306 p.
Keyword [en]
green leaf volatiles; growth; Hylobius abietis; Picea abies; seedling size; survival; terpenes; weevil damage
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8333DOI: 10.1080/02827580802203560ISI: 000258590400003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-49949114098OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8333DiVA: diva2:13626
Note
QC 20100818. Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel (20100818). Tidigare titel: Why are mini seedlings less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: is plant chemistry the answer?Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Volatiles of Conifer Seedlings: Compositions and Resistance Markers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volatiles of Conifer Seedlings: Compositions and Resistance Markers
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Pine weevils cause major damage to newly planted conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. However, recent findings indicate that small (“mini”) seedlings, planted at the age of 7-10 weeks, are gnawed less by pine weevils than the larger, conventionally planted seedlings. Thus, it has been proposed that planting young conifer seedlings in clear-cut areas may reduce the damage caused by pine weevils. In attempts to determine why mini seedlings appear to be less damaged by pine weevils than “conventional” seedlings, the volatiles released by Norway spruce and Scots pine mini seedlings were investigated, since such chemicals are of great importance in herbivore-plant communication, inter alia acting as repellents, attractants or antifeedants.

Volatiles from the seedlings were collected, separated and identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The results show that there are high levels of chemodiversity among both spruce and pine seedlings. Between-tissue and age-related variations in their emissions were also found.

Norway spruce clones infested by mites were also examined to assess genotype- and pest-specific stress reactions of Norway spruce. Finally, the effects of certain spruce defense compounds on the behavior of the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis were examined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 51 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:34
Keyword
Conifers, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Nalepella, Oligonychus ununguis, green leaf volatiles, terpenes, aromatics, benzenoids, SPME, induced defense reaction
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4723 (URN)978-91-7178-962-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-19, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100818Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
2. Chemical defence in Norway spruce
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical defence in Norway spruce
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Norway spruce (Picea abies) responds to stress by biosynthesis of chemical substances, which can deter invading insects or pathogens. Some of these substances are volatile and can be emitted to the surroundings while others are accumulated within the tree. Information about the susceptibility of individual plants to infestation, their volatile emissions and chemical defence is of interest, for example, in selecting plants for tree breeding programs.

The first part of this research focused on volatiles emitted by Norway spruce plants. Collection of headspace volatiles by SPME and subsequent separation and identification with GC-MS was used to investigate Norway spruce plants of different ages and stress conditions as well as trapping semiochemicals like nepetalactone emitted by the spruce shoot aphids. It was even possible to analyse the emission of single needles in vivo and obtain spatial localisation of the stress reaction to methyl jasmonate or spruce spinning mites. Seedlings of different ages showed differences in chemical composition of emitted volatiles, with the pine weevil repellent, (4S)-(-)-limonene, one of the main compounds. Wounded phloem of conventional plants emitted high amounts of monoterpenes while the phloem of mini plants emitted (3Z)-hexenal and (3Z)-hexen-1-ol. In addition, a method to separate and identify the four diastereomers of nepetalactone by GC-MS and characteristic m/z-fragments was accomplished.

The second part of the research deals with the chemical response of Norway spruce roots to inoculation with Heterobasidion annosum. Terpene concentrations increased after inoculation or wounding but the composition was mainly associated with clone identity and not to susceptibility or treatment. In contrast, inoculation with H. annosum induced a treatment-specific alteration of phenol composition. The constitutive phenol composition differed between more and less susceptible clones. The phenols astringin and astringin dimers (piceasides) as well as the terpene α-longipinene may be suitable markers of low susceptibility for P. abies to Heterobasidion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 63 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:13
Keyword
volatiles, terpenes, green leaf volatiles, stilbenes, stress response, nepetalactone, Picea abies, Hylobius abietis, Cinara pilicornis, Oligonychus ununguis, Heterobasidion annosum
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31133 (URN)978-91-7415-877-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-01, K1, Teknikringen 36, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110314Available from: 2011-03-14 Created: 2011-03-09 Last updated: 2011-03-14Bibliographically approved
3. Stress Related Emissions of Norway Spruce Plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress Related Emissions of Norway Spruce Plants
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The interactions between plants and insects are mediated by volatile molecules. Plants respond to stress by biosynthesis of chemical substances which can deter invading insects or pathogens. Some of these substances are volatile and are emitted to the surroundings and may attract or repel insects. Information about the susceptibility of individual plants to infestation, their volatile emissions and chemical defence is of interest, for example in selecting plants for tree breeding programs.

This research was focused on finding volatile chemical markers of resistance in Norway spruce plants that do influence insects associated to conifers. Collection of headspace volatiles by SPME followed by separation and identification with GC-MS is effective in investigating biological systems with a minimum of disturbance. This method has here been used to investigate Norway spruce plants of different ages and stress conditions as well as trapping semiochemicals like nepetalactone emitted by the spruce shoot aphids. It was even possible to analyse the emission of single needles in vivo and obtain a chemical pattern of the site of the stress reaction. Seedlings of different ages showed differences in chemical composition of emitted volatiles, with the pine weevil repellent (S)-(-)-limonene as one of the main compounds. Wounded phloem of conventional plants emitted high amounts of monoterpenes while the phloem of mini plants emitted (3Z)-hexenal and (3Z)-hexen-1-ol.

Norway spruce plants did respond to different stress elicitors with similar response, regardless of their genetic origin. The emissions from stressed Norway spruce plants mainly consist of (E)-β-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-α-bisabolene, (R)-(-)-linalool and methyl salicylate. Emissions from live spruce shoot aphids were detected during autumn periods, and a method to separate and identify the four diastereomers of nepetalactone by GC-MS and characteristic m/z-fragments was accomplished.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kemi, 2007
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2007:22
Keyword
volatiles, terpenes, green leaf volatiles, stress response, nepetalactone, SPME, Picea abies, Hylobius abietis, Cinara pillicornis
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4353 (URN)978-91-7178-644-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-05-09, D31, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2012-03-21Bibliographically approved

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