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Volatiles of Conifer Seedlings: Compositions and Resistance Markers
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. (Ecological Chemistry Group)
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Pine weevils cause major damage to newly planted conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. However, recent findings indicate that small (“mini”) seedlings, planted at the age of 7-10 weeks, are gnawed less by pine weevils than the larger, conventionally planted seedlings. Thus, it has been proposed that planting young conifer seedlings in clear-cut areas may reduce the damage caused by pine weevils. In attempts to determine why mini seedlings appear to be less damaged by pine weevils than “conventional” seedlings, the volatiles released by Norway spruce and Scots pine mini seedlings were investigated, since such chemicals are of great importance in herbivore-plant communication, inter alia acting as repellents, attractants or antifeedants.

Volatiles from the seedlings were collected, separated and identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The results show that there are high levels of chemodiversity among both spruce and pine seedlings. Between-tissue and age-related variations in their emissions were also found.

Norway spruce clones infested by mites were also examined to assess genotype- and pest-specific stress reactions of Norway spruce. Finally, the effects of certain spruce defense compounds on the behavior of the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis were examined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , 51 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:34
Keyword [en]
Conifers, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Nalepella, Oligonychus ununguis, green leaf volatiles, terpenes, aromatics, benzenoids, SPME, induced defense reaction
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4723ISBN: 978-91-7178-962-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4723DiVA: diva2:13632
Public defence
2008-05-19, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100818Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: Is plant chemistry the explanation?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: Is plant chemistry the explanation?
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2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 23, no 4, 299-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Miniseedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant alpha-pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this miniseedling effect remains.

Keyword
green leaf volatiles; growth; Hylobius abietis; Picea abies; seedling size; survival; terpenes; weevil damage
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8333 (URN)10.1080/02827580802203560 (DOI)000258590400003 ()2-s2.0-49949114098 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100818. Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel (20100818). Tidigare titel: Why are mini seedlings less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: is plant chemistry the answer?Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2011-09-12Bibliographically approved
2. Odors of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings: differences due to age and chemotype and their relevance for weevil resistance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Odors of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings: differences due to age and chemotype and their relevance for weevil resistance
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(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8334 (URN)
Note
QC 20100818Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
3. Volatile emissions from pine seedlings: age-related changes and chemotypes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volatile emissions from pine seedlings: age-related changes and chemotypes
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8335 (URN)
Note
QC 20100818Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
4. Correlations between terpenes emitted by mini-plants of Norway spruce and Scots pine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlations between terpenes emitted by mini-plants of Norway spruce and Scots pine
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Keyword
conifer; seedling; correlation; monoterpenes; sesquiterpenes; SPME
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8336 (URN)
Note
QC 20100818Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
5. Infestation by a Nalepella species induces emissions of alpha- and beta-farnesenes, (-)- linalool and aromatic compounds in Norway spruce clones of different susceptibility to the large pine weevil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infestation by a Nalepella species induces emissions of alpha- and beta-farnesenes, (-)- linalool and aromatic compounds in Norway spruce clones of different susceptibility to the large pine weevil
2008 (English)In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, Vol. 2, no 1, 31-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The emissions of spruce grafts (Picea abies), caused by infestation of an acarid species of the genus Nalepella were investigated. Volatiles of three clones, both healthy and infested, with different susceptibility to the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis were collected by solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, enantiomers of the main chiral compounds were separated by a two dimensional-gas chromatograph (2D-GC). In the characteristic flower-like fragrances emitted by the infested grafts large amounts of E-beta-farnesene, E, E-alpha-farnesene, (-)-linalool, methyl salicylate and minute amounts of benzyl alcohol, E-anethole, methyl benzoate, neral and geranial were found. All together, these compounds could explain the characteristic scent emitted by the infested seedlings. Large differences in the emissions of E-beta-farnesene, E, E-alpha-farnesene and methyl salicylate were found between but not within the clones.

Keyword
Nalepella; Picea; Infestation; Farnesene; Methyl salicylate; Linalool; Neral; Stress
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17983 (URN)10.1007/s11829-008-9029-4 (DOI)000260961100004 ()2-s2.0-41149104564 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
6. Volatiles from a Mite-Infested Spruce Clone and Their Effects on Pine Weevil Behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volatiles from a Mite-Infested Spruce Clone and Their Effects on Pine Weevil Behavior
2009 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 35, no 10, 1262-1271 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Induced responses by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to feeding damage by two mite species were studied by analyzing the volatiles emitted during infestation. Four specimens of a Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) clone were infested with mites of Nalepella sp., another four with Oligonychus ununguis, and four were kept mite-free as controls. After a year of infestation, spruce volatiles were collected, analyzed, and identified using SPME-GC-MS. In addition, enantiomers of chiral limonene and linalool were separated by two-dimensional GC. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), (-)-linalool, (E)-beta-farnesene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were the main volatiles induced by both species of mites, albeit in different proportions. The ability of the main compounds emitted by the mite-infested spruces to attract or repel the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), was tested. (E)-beta-farnesene was found to be attractive in the absence of spruce odor, whereas methyl salicylate had a deterrent effect in combination with attractive spruce odor. The other tested compounds had no significant effects on the behavior of the weevils.

Keyword
Acari; Hylobius abietis; Nalepella sp.; Oligonychus ununguis; Picea abies; Norway spruce; Linalool; Farnesene; Methyl salicylate; Sesquiterpenes-
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18977 (URN)10.1007/s10886-009-9708-3 (DOI)000272034300013 ()2-s2.0-76149130370 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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