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Limiting conditions for pitting corrosion of stainless steel EN 1.4404 (316L) in terms of temperature, potential and chloride concentration
Avesta Research Centre, Outokumpu Stainless steel AB, Koppardalsvägen 65, P.O. Box 74, Avesta, SE-774 22, Sweden. (Surface and corrosion science)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8182-6530
Jernkontoret – The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association, Kungsträdgårdsgatan 10, P.O. Box 1721, Stockholm, 111 87, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0980-0560
2017 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 272-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main stainless steel grades used for water applications are 1.4307 and 1.4404. The grade selection depends on the conditions: 1.4404 is a more conservative choice and has an improved corrosion resistance over 1.4307. This paper addresses the concept of defining limiting conditions for pitting corrosion of 1.4404 in terms of the environmental parameters such as temperature, potential and chloride concentration. Extensive testing has been done with a combination of short-term electrochemical measurements and long-term chlorination experiments. Results are discussed in the light of the current understanding of the critical levels of key parameters for pitting corrosion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Materials and Corrosion, 2017. Vol. 68, no 3, p. 272-283
Keywords [en]
Pitting corrosion, stainless steel, chloride ion, temperature, 316L, chlorination, pitting diagram
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263817DOI: 10.1002/maco.201609061ISI: 000395403000001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84978915409OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263817DiVA, id: diva2:1370298
Note

QC 20191115

Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Localised corrosion and atmospheric corrosion of stainless steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localised corrosion and atmospheric corrosion of stainless steels
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This research is focused on defining limiting conditions for corrosion of stainless steels. The aim of the first part (Papers I-IV) was to understand the role of alloying level and environmental parameters on localised corrosion in aqueous conditions. Testing was done with a combination of short-term electrochemical and long-term immersion experiments. Results show that the chloride ion concentration and temperature are the main factors that affect the localised corrosion resistance. The presence of residual chlorine is also significant, since it leads to the ennoblement of the corrosion potential. If the corrosion potential exceeds the breakdown potential, the stainless steel will suffer from localised corrosion. Oxygen content and pH were identified as additional factors influencing the corrosivity of the environment.

The aim of second part (Papers V-VIII) was to present information about the effect of alloying level, surface condition and environmental conditions on atmospheric corrosion resistance in Middle-East environments. Field exposure tests were performed and supplemented by laboratory aqueous corrosion tests. Results demonstrate that a higher alloying level (in both the bulk material and the surface), plus a smoother and cleaner surface gave an improvement in the corrosion performance and resistance to aesthetic degradation. Chloride and sulphate are the main surface contaminants found in the Middle East atmosphere. Stainless steels exposed in sheltered conditions showed a better atmospheric corrosion resistance than in open conditions. Three factors are considered to contribute to this difference: a very low rainfall, more condensation leading to corrosion in the open conditions and a higher level of beneficial sulphate in the deposits in sheltered conditions. The results showed a reasonable correlation between laboratory pitting corrosion tests and atmospheric field tests.

The results from this thesis provide reference data to aid selection of appropriate stainless steel grades. Results can also be used to help understand the limits for use of stainless steels in different conditions in both aqueous environments and in the atmosphere.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling inriktar sig på att definiera gränser för korrosion hos rostfria stål. Syftet med den första delen (Artikel I-IV) var att förstå inverkan av legeringssammansättning och miljöparametrar på lokal korrosion i vattenlösningar. En kombination av elektrokemiska korttidsförsök och långvarig provning har utförts. Resultaten visar att kloridhalten och temperaturen är de två viktigaste faktorerna som påverkar den lokala korrosionsbeständigheten hos rostfritt stål. Närvaro av kvarvarande klor är också en betydande faktor som leder till att korrosionspotentialen ökar. Om korrosionspotentialen når genombrottspotentialen drabbas det rostfria stålet av lokal korrosion. Syreinnehåll och pH visade sig vara ytterligare faktorer som påverkar miljöns korrosivitet. Syftet med den andra delen (Artikel V-VIII) var att presentera information om hur olika legeringsämnen, yttillstånd och miljöparametrar påverkar den atmosfäriska korrosionsbeständigheten i Mellanöstern. Fälttester har utförts i kombination med korrosionstester i laboratoriet. Resultaten visar att ett högre legeringsinnehåll (i både bulkmaterialet och på ytan), samt en jämnare och rengjord yta gav en förbättring av korrosionsegenskaperna. Klorid och sulfat är de två huvudsakliga föroreningarna som finns i Mellanösterns atmosfär. Rostfria stål exponerade under skyddade förhållanden uppvisade en bättre korrosionsbeständighet än under öppna förhållanden. Tre faktorer anses bidra till denna skillnad: en mycket låg nederbörd, mer kondens som leder till korrosion under öppna förhållanden och en högre nivå av gynnsamt sulfat i avlagringar under skyddade förhållanden. Resultaten visade också en rimlig korrelation mellan laboratorietester och de atmosfäriska fälttesterna. Resultaten från forskningen ger referensdata som kan användas som stöd för materialval och för att lättare kunna välja rätt rostfri stålsort. Resultaten kan också användas för att förstå gränser för rostfritt stål gällande lokal korrosion i olika miljöer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH: KTH, 2019. p. 109
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2019:56
Keywords
stainless steel, localised corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, alloy composition, surface finish, surface roughness, surface treatment, surface orientation, contamination, chloride, sulphate, temperature, chlorination, exposure conditions.
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263756 (URN)978-91-7873-330-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-13, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 2019-11-19

Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved

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