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Metagenome of a polluted river reveals a reservoir of metabolic and antibiotic resistance genes
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. Metagenomics and Systems Biology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3514-8999
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Microbiomes, ISSN 2524-6372, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Yamuna, a major tributary of Ganga, which flows through the national capital region of Delhi, is among the major polluted rivers in India. The accumulation of various effluents, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and increased organic load in the Yamuna directly affects the organisms that thrive inside or around this river. It also makes it an ideal site for studying the impact of pollution on the river microflora, which are sentinels of the water quality. Results: In this study, the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the Yamuna river water was assessed from the New Delhi region. The community structure of Yamuna during pre-monsoon (June) was found to be significantly different from the post-monsoon (November) time, with Acinetobacter being the most abundant genus during June, and Aeromonas during November. The functional characterization revealed the higher abundance of Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein in the river water, which could be important for the microbial chemosensory adaptation in the environment. A higher abundance of genes related to nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, metal tolerance, and xenobiotic degradation, and complete degradation pathways of aromatic compounds such as toluene, xylene, benzene and phenol were identified. Further, the results showed the presence of a pool of antibiotic resistance genes in the bacterial microbiome in the Yamuna alongside a large number of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases. Efflux mechanism of resistance was found to dominate among these microbes conferring multi-drug resistance. The Principal Coordinate Analysis of the taxonomic composition of the Yamuna River water with publicly available freshwater and sewage datasets revealed significant differences in the two Yamuna samples and a greater resemblance of pre-monsoon Yamuna sample to sewage sample owing to the higher pollution levels in Yamuna in the pre-monsoon time. Conclusion: The metagenomic study of the Yamuna river provides the first insights on the bacterial microbiome composition of this large polluted river, and also helps to understand the dynamics in the community structure and functions due to seasonal variations. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes and functional insights on the metabolic potential of a polluted river microbiome are likely to have several applications in health, biotechnology and bioremediation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019. Vol. 14, no 1, article id 5
Keywords [en]
Antibiotic resistance genes, Metagenomes, Metal tolerance, Metallo-β-lactamases, NDM-1, Polluted river, Yamuna, antibiotic agent, benzene, carbapenemase, metallo beta lactamase, methyl accepting chemotaxis protein, nitrogen, phenol, river water, sulfur, toluene, xylene, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, antibiotic resistance, Article, bacterial gene, bacterial microbiome, community structure, controlled study, metabolism, metagenome, metagenomics, microbial community, microbial diversity, multidrug resistance, nonhuman, seasonal variation
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Biotechnology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263564DOI: 10.1186/s40793-019-0345-3Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85072510131OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263564DiVA, id: diva2:1373318
Note

QC 20191129

Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved

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