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Amplitude modulation of wind turbine sound in cold climates
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 75236, Sweden.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2294-9041
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 75236, Sweden.
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 75236, Sweden.
2020 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 158, article id 107024Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amplitude modulation is assumed to be a major annoyance factor of wind turbine sound. However, studies on the generation of amplitude modulation and the impact of atmospheric conditions on amplitude modulation are limited, especially in cold climates. Long-term acoustic and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of a wind farm in northern Sweden show a dependence of the occurrence of amplitude modulation on wind direction and atmospheric stability. The occurrence of amplitude modulation is highest for crosswinds from southwest, compared with the other wind directions. Moreover, the occurrence of amplitude modulation is clearly linked to atmospheric stability and highest for very stable conditions. The impact of atmospheric stability is supported by analyses of wind shear, the wind speed gradient close to the surface and the bulk Richardson number. Amplitude modulation is more likely during winter than during summer and more likely during night and early morning than during noon and early afternoon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020. Vol. 158, article id 107024
Keywords [en]
Amplitude modulation, Atmospheric acoustics, Wind turbine sound, Wind, Wind power, Wind turbines, Atmospheric conditions, Atmospheric stability, Bulk Richardson number, Cold climate, Meteorological measurements, Northern sweden, Wind directions, Wind turbine sounds
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering; Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263431DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.107024ISI: 000499735400008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85072615893OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263431DiVA, id: diva2:1375571
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC20191205

Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved

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Bolin, Karl

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