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Nitrogen and phosphorous doped graphene quantum dots: Excellent flame retardants and smoke suppressants for polyacrylonitrile nanocomposites
Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, 15875-4413, Iran.
Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, 15875-4413, Iran.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7790-8987
Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, 15875-4413, Iran.
2020 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 381, article id 121013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen (N-GQD) as well as nitrogen and phosphorous co-doped (NP-GQD) graphene quantum dots were demonstrated as novel, low cost, green and highly effective flame retardants and smoke suppressants for polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanocomposites. The N-GQD and NP-GQD samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method with citric acid as the main reactant. For the first time, the flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties of the NP-GQD were studied. The GQDs were introduced into PAN by solvent blending route. Subsequently, thermal stability, flame retardancy, fire behavior, fire hazard and structure of the residual char were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UL-94 vertical burning test, cone calorimetry, FE-SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Results showed that both PAN/N-GQD and PAN/NP-GQD nanocomposites had higher flame retardancy and smoke suppressant behavior in addition to lower fire hazard properties than neat PAN. Furthermore, the residual chars for the nanocomposite samples were increased in comparison to the neat PAN. The improvements were even more significant in case of the PAN/NP-GQD due to the synergistic effect of nitrogen and phosphorous. The improvements were mainly ascribed to the ability of the N-GQD and NP-GQD to provide stronger and larger protective char barrier layers, which was even more pronounced in case of the NP-GQD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020. Vol. 381, article id 121013
Keywords [en]
Char barrier layer, Fire hazard, Flame retardant, N and P co-doped graphene quantum dot (NP-GQD), Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), Smoke suppressant
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Fibre and Polymer Science; Physics, Material and Nano Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263435DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121013ISI: 000504778400072PubMedID: 31442693Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85070915285OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263435DiVA, id: diva2:1375578
Note

QC 20191205

Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved

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Hakkarainen, Minna

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