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Distributed Quantization over Noisy Channels
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7926-5081
2009 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 57, no 6, 1693-1700 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The problem of designing simple and energyefficient sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network is considered from a joint source-channel coding perspective. An algorithm for designing distributed scalar quantizers for orthogonal channels is proposed and evaluated. In particular the cases of the binary symmetric channel as well as the additive white Gaussian noise channel are studied. It is demonstrated that correlation between sources can be useful in order to reduce quantization distortion as well as protecting data when being transmitted over nonideal channels. It is also demonstrated that the obtained system is robust against channel SNR mismatch.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society , 2009. Vol. 57, no 6, 1693-1700 p.
Keyword [en]
Source coding, quantization, channel coding, correlation
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8444DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2009.06.070482ISI: 000266990500026Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67650675055OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8444DiVA: diva2:13768
Note
QC 20100908. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published (20100908)Available from: 2008-11-27 Created: 2008-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Low-delay sensing and transmission in wireless sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-delay sensing and transmission in wireless sensor networks
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

With the increasing popularity and relevance of ad-hoc wireless sensor networks, cooperative transmission is more relevant than ever. In this thesis, we consider methods for optimization of cooperative transmission schemes in wireless sensor networks. We are in particular interested in communication schemes that can be used in applications that are critical to low-delays, such as networked control, and propose suitable candidates of joint source-channel coding schemes. We show that, in many cases, there are significant gains if the parts of the system are jointly optimized for the current source and channel. We especially focus on two means of cooperative transmission, namely distributed source coding and relaying.

In the distributed source coding case, we consider transmission of correlated continuous sources and propose an algorithm for designing simple and energy-efficient sensor nodes. In particular the cases of the binary symmetric channel as well as the additive white Gaussian noise channel are studied. The system works on a sample by sample basis yielding a very low encoding complexity, at an insignificant delay. Due to the source correlation, the resulting quantizers use the same indices for several separated intervals in order to reduce the quantization distortion.

For the case of relaying, we study the transmission of a continuous Gaussian source and the transmission of an uniformly distributed discrete source. In both situations, we propose design algorithms to design low-delay source-channel and relay mappings. We show that there can be significant power savings if the optimized systems are used instead of more traditional systems. By studying the structure of the optimized source-channel and relay mappings, we provide useful insights on how the optimized systems work. Interestingly, the design algorithm generally produces relay mappings with a structure that resembles Wyner-Ziv compression.

Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2008:059
Keyword
Cooperative communication, wireless sensor networks, low-delay transmission, joint source-channel coding, estimation, quantization
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9697 (URN)
Presentation
2008-12-18, Q26, Osquldas väg 6B, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-28 Created: 2008-11-27 Last updated: 2011-11-10
2. Source-Channel Coding in Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Source-Channel Coding in Networks
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The aim of source coding is to represent information as accurately as possible using as few bits as possible and in order to do so redundancy from the source needs to be removed. The aim of channel coding is in some sense the contrary, namely to introduce redundancy that can be exploited to protect the information when being transmitted over a nonideal channel. Combining these two techniques leads to the area of joint source-channel coding which in general makes it possible to achieve a better performance when designing a communication system than in the case when source and channel codes are designed separately. In this thesis four particular areas in joint source-channel coding are studied: analog (i.e. continuous) bandwidth expansion, distributed source coding over noisy channels, multiple description coding (MDC) and soft decoding.

A general analog bandwidth expansion code based on orthogonal polynomials is proposed and analyzed. The code has a performance comparable with other existing schemes. However, the code is more general in the sense that it is implementable for a larger number of source distributions.

The problem of distributed source coding over noisy channels is studied. Two schemes are proposed and analyzed for this problem which both work on a sample by sample basis. The first code is based on scalar quantization optimized for a certain channel characteristics. The second code is nonlinear and analog.

Two new MDC schemes are proposed and investigated. The first is based on sorting a frame of samples and transmitting, as side-information/redundancy, an index that describes the resulting permutation. In case that some of the transmitted descriptors are lost during transmission this side information (if received) can be used to estimate the lost descriptors based on the received ones. The second scheme uses permutation codes to produce different descriptions of a block of source data. These descriptions can be used jointly to estimate the original source data. Finally, also the MDC method multiple description coding using pairwise correlating transforms as introduced by Wang et al. is studied. A modi fication of the quantization in this method is proposed which yields a performance gain.

A well known result in joint source-channel coding is that the performance of a communication system can be improved by using soft decoding of the channel output at the cost of a higher decoding complexity. An alternative to this is to quantize the soft information and store the pre-calculated soft decision values in a lookup table. In this thesis we propose new methods for quantizing soft channel information, to be used in conjunction with soft-decision source decoding. The issue on how to best construct finite-bandwidth representations of soft information is also studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. viii, 44 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2008:028
Keyword
source coding, channel coding, joint source-channel coding, bandwidth expansion, distributed source coding, multiple description coding, soft decoding
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4751 (URN)978-91-7415-002-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-03, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsv 25, Stockholm, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2008-05-15 Created: 2008-05-15 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved
3. Low-delay sensing and transmission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-delay sensing and transmission
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studies cooperative sensing and transmission in the context ofwireless sensor networks (WSNs). We especially focus on two means of cooperative sensing and transmission, namely, distributed source coding and relaying. We consider systems where the usefulness of the measured data is dependent on how old the data is and we therefore need low-delay transmission schemes. At first sight, the low-delay criterion may seem to be of little relevance, but it is this aspect in particular that distinguishes this thesis from many of the existing communication theoretic results, which often are asymptotic in the block lengths. The thesis is composed of an introductory part, discussing the fundamentals of communication theory and how these are related to the requirements of WSNs, followed by a part where the results of the thesis are reported in Papers A-H.

Papers A-D study different scenarios for distributed source-channel coding. In Paper A, we consider transmission of correlated continuous sources and propose an iterative algorithm for designing simple and energy-efficient sensor nodes. In particular the cases of the binary symmetric channel as well as the additive white Gaussian noise channel are studied. In Paper B, the work is extended to channels with interference and it is shown that also in this case there can be significant power savings by performing a joint optimization of the system.Papers C and D use a more structured approach and propose side-information-aware source-channel coding strategies using lattices and sinusoids.

In Paper E, we apply the methods we have used in joint source-channel coding to the famous Witsenhausen counterexample. By using a relatively simple iterative algorithm, we are able to demonstrate the best numerical performance known to date.

For the case of systems with relays, we study the transmission of a continuous Gaussian source and the transmission of an uniformly distributed discrete source. In both situations, we propose algorithms to design low-delay source-channel and relay mappings. By studying the structure of the optimized source-channel and relay mappings, we provide useful insights into how the optimized systems work. These results are reported in Papers F and G.

In Paper H, we finally consider sum-MSE minimization for the Gaussian multiple-input, multiple-output broadcast channel. By using recently discovered properties of this problem, we derive a closed-form expression for the optimal power allocation in the two-user scenario and propose a conceptually simple and efficient algorithm that handles an arbitrary number of users.

Throughout the thesis we show that there are significant gains if the parts of the system are jointly optimized for the source and channel statistics. All methods that are considered in this thesis yield very low coding and decoding delays. In general, nonlinear mappings outperform linear mappings for problems where there is side-information available. Another contribution of this thesis is visualization of numerically optimized systems that can be used as inspiration when structured low-delay systems are designed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. xii, 30 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2011:039
Keyword
Cooperative communication, wireless sensor networks, low-delay transmission, joint source-channel coding, distributed source coding, estimation, quantization
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33404 (URN)978-91-7415-983-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-26, Hörsal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note
The author changed name from Johannes Karlsson to Johannes Kron in January 2011. QC 20110512Available from: 2011-05-12 Created: 2011-05-05 Last updated: 2011-10-30Bibliographically approved

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