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Assessing sustainable approaches to sanitation planning and implementation in West Africa
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The challenge of achieving global sanitation targets is that it requires application of both technology that is appropriate and a supporting organizational structure. The interactions between the two begin during the planning/decision-making process and continue throughout the system lifetime. During the last decade, strategic planning frameworks have emerged in the water and sanitation sector that reflect a shift from traditional, top-down planning to a more participatory, bottom-up approach. Despite this shift and in light of the continuing challenge of achieving widespread sanitation in the world, it is necessary to question if a knowledge gap exists between the global sanitation frameworks and local stakeholder priorities. This licentiate thesis presents the first phase of a research project whose objective is to study the global models and compare them with existing local planning and decision-making conditions. It focuses on establishing the global context with regard to strategic planning tools and perspectives on sustainable sanitation. In general, there is close agreement on methodology and processes recommended by international planning frameworks; however the use of the term “sustainable sanitation” is highly variable. In general, the findings of this thesis show that improving sanitation conditions requires tools based on participation, social marketing, and process approaches for planning, capacity development, and feedback. Continuation of this research will investigate the local context regarding current planning practices and perspectives on sustainable sanitation in order to assess potential differences between the global and local context and make recommendations for improving adaptation of planning strategies for bringing sanitation to scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , viii, 24 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2043
Keyword [en]
Decision-Making, Implementation, Planning, Sanitation, Sustainable
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4767ISBN: 978-91-7415-022-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4767DiVA: diva2:13840
Presentation
2008-06-09, V3, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101118Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-11-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Sanitation Planning: A Tool to Achieve Sustainable Sanitation?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sanitation Planning: A Tool to Achieve Sustainable Sanitation?
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of Water Supply and Sanitation For All / [ed] Wilderer et al., 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The global sanitation crisis and its importance to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is reflected in the specific sanitation target adopted in 2002. An enormous amount of funds will need to be invested in sanitation over the coming years in order to meet the MDGs. It is important that these funds are invested in sustainable sanitation systems, since providing sanitation systems that are not sustained is a very costly shortterm solution that may contribute to long-term problems. The authors strongly believe that sanitation planning is one key to sustainable sanitation. Recent planning frameworks for sustainable sanitation systems suggest the utilization of a number of steps: (i) recognizing the existence of different domains across the city, (ii) analysis of the interests driving desire for the sanitation system and services for the stakeholders across the domains, (iii) analysis of external drivers and context that impact behaviour in each domain (iv) analysis of technical options, in relation to findings on context and criteria, (v) analysis of management requirements for proposed technical options, (vi) critical assessment whether the proposed system is fit for the purpose. This paper will discuss the merits and challenges of these planning methodologies in reference to experience from West Africa and Sweden. The intent is to illustrate the potential of these methods for increasing sustainable sanitation, but also to raise some key questions that may be missing from the frameworks.

National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26155 (URN)
Note
QC 20101118Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2010-11-18Bibliographically approved
2. Adapting life-cycle thinking tools to evaluate project sustainability in international water and sanitation development work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting life-cycle thinking tools to evaluate project sustainability in international water and sanitation development work
2007 (English)In: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 24, no 7, 937-948 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals have called issues of water and sanitation to the forefront of international development efforts. Engineers and other development workers are answering this call in increasing numbers. In order to achieve these goals it is necessary to overcome the historically low sustainability rates of development projects. This paper presents a logical framework for identifying and analyzing the factors that affect sustainable development of water and sanitation projects. It identifies five sustainability factors that are common in development literature and the policies of international aid organizations: (1) sociocultural respect, (2) community participation, (3) political cohesion, (4) economic sustainability, and (5) environmental sustainability. A life-cycle thinking approach is used to assess how project sustainability can be improved throughout the project life. Five life stages are identified to represent the life of a development project: (1) needs assessment, (2) conceptual designs and feasibility, (3) design and action planning, (4) implementation, and (5) operation and maintenance. Using the defined sustainability factors and life-cycle stages, an assessment matrix is developed. A series of guidelines for each matrix element are given for scoring the sustainability of a project. The guidelines are derived from best practice approaches to effective international development. The proposed sustainability matrix can be used as a guide for project planning or as an evaluation system to identify strengths and weaknesses in project approaches.

Keyword
life-cycle thinking, sustainability, water, sanitation, development projects
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26156 (URN)10.1089/ees.2006.0225 (DOI)000249777400008 ()
Note
QC 20101118Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2010-11-18Bibliographically approved
3. Perceptions of Local Sustainability in Planning Sanitation Projects in West Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of Local Sustainability in Planning Sanitation Projects in West Africa
2010 (English)In: SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE SANITATION CHALLENGE / [ed] VanVliet, B.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P., 2010, 105-124 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to examine local perceptions of sustainability in the context of sanitation interventions in Burkina Faso and Mali, West Africa. Through a series of interviews with local actors criteria for sustainable sanitation were defined in the local context. These local criteria were compared with criteria found in international literature and planning practices used in two sanitation projects. The results from the interviews emphasize criteria related to behaviour change processes, while criteria in literature are either oriented toward technical assessments or project guidelines. The case studies show an attempt to merge academic and pragmatic perspectives by addressing both the technical requirements and processes of social change. As we seek to improve results within the sector it is important to start reflecting on what criteria and sustainability definitions are used in specific approaches.

National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26157 (URN)10.1007/978-90-481-3721-3_7 (DOI)000280445200007 ()
Conference
Sanitation Challenge Conference, Wageningen, NETHERLANDS, MAY 19-21, 2008
Note
QC 20101118Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2010-11-18Bibliographically approved

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