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A framework for fault-tolerance in HLA-based distributed simulations
Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Dept. of Systems Modeling.
Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Dept. of Systems Modeling.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference, 2005, 1182-1189 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The widespread use of simulation in future military systems depends, among others, on the degree of reuse and availability of simulation models. Simulation support in such systems must also cope with failure in software or hardware. Research in fault-tolerant distributed simulation, especially in the context of the High Level Architecture (HLA), has been quite sparse. Nor does the HLA standard itself cover fault-tolerance extensively. This paper describes a framework, named Distributed Resource Management System (DRMS), for robust execution of federations. The implementation of the framework is based on Web Services and Semantic Web technology, and provides fundamental services and a consistent mechanism for description of resources managed by the environment. To evaluate the proposed framework, a federation has been developed that utilizes time-warp mechanism for synchronization. In this paper, we describe our approach to fault tolerance and give an example to illustrate how DRMS behaves when it faces faulty federates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. 1182-1189 p.
Keyword [en]
Computer architecture, Computer simulation, Computer software, Distributed computer systems, Military operations, Robustness (control systems), Semantics, World Wide Web, Distributed Resource Management System (DRMS), High Level Architecture (HLA), Semantic Web technology, Time-warp mechanism
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8514DOI: 10.1109/WSC.2005.1574375ISI: 000236253401068Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33751568837ISBN: 0-7803-9519-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8514DiVA: diva2:13859
Note
QC 20100830Available from: 2008-05-26 Created: 2008-05-26 Last updated: 2010-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Framework for Component Based Modelling and Simulation using BOMs and Semantic Web Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Component Based Modelling and Simulation using BOMs and Semantic Web Technology
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Modelling and Simulation (M&S) is a multi-disciplinary field that is widely used in various domains. It provides a means to study complex systems before actual physical prototyping and helps lowering, amongst others, manufacturing and training costs. However, as M&S gains more popularity, the demand on reducing time and resource costs associated with development and validation of simulation models has also increased. Composing simulation models of reusable and validated simulation components is one approach for addressing the above demand. This approach, which is still an open research issue in M&S, requires a composition process that is able to support a modeller with discovery and identification of components as well as giving feedback on feasibility of a composition. Combining components in order to build new simulations raise the non-trivial issue of composability.

Composability has been defined as the capability to select and assemble reusable simulation components in various combinations into simulation systems to meet user requirements. There are three main types of composability, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Syntactic composability is concerned with the compatibility of implementation details, such as parameter passing mechanisms, external data accesses, and timing mechanisms. It is the question of whether a set of components can be combined. Semantic composability, on the other hand, is concerned with the validity of the composition, and whether the composed simulation is meaningful. Pragmatic composability is yet another type which is concerned with the context of the simulation, and whether the composed simulation meets the intended purpose of the modeller. Of these three types syntactic composability is easiest to accomplish and some significant progresses on this issue have been reported in the literature. Semantic and pragmatic composability are much harder to achieve and has inspired many researchers to conduct both theoretical and experimental research.

The Base Object Model (BOM) is a new concept identified within M&S community as a potential facilitator for providing reusable model components for the rapid construction and modification of simulations. Although BOMs exhibit good capabilities for reuse and composability they lack the required semantic information for semantic matching and composition. There is little support for defining concepts and terms in order to avoid ambiguity, and there is no method for matching behaviour of conceptual models (i.e., state machines of the components), which is required for reasoning about the validity of BOM compositions.

In this work we have developed a framework for component-based model development that supports both syntactic and semantic composability of simulation models by extending the BOM concept using ontologies, Semantic Web and Web Services technologies, and developing a rule-based method for reasoning about BOM compositions. The issue of pragmatic composability has not been the focus of this work, and it has only been partly addressed. The framework utilises intelligent agents to perform discovery and composition of components, according to the modeller needs. It includes a collaborative environment, a semantic distributed repository and an execution environment to support model development and execution process.

The basic assumption of this work is that semantic composability should be achieved at conceptual level. Through precise definition and specification of components’ semantic and syntax one can capture the basic requirements for matching and semantically meaningful composition of those components. This requires a common methodology for specification of simulation components. The specification methodology consists of meta-models describing simulation components at different levels. In order to enable automatic matching of meta-models they are formalized and structured using Semantic Web technology in OWL (Web Ontology Language). Hence, the models are based on ontologies to avoid misunderstanding and to provide unambiguous definitions as a basis for reasoning about syntactic and semantic validity of compositions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. xii, 84 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 08:05
Keyword
Computer science
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4770 (URN)978-91-7178-957-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, Sal D, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100830Available from: 2008-05-26 Created: 2008-05-26 Last updated: 2010-08-30Bibliographically approved
2. Fault-tolerance in HLA-based distributed simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fault-tolerance in HLA-based distributed simulations
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Successful integration of simulations within the Network-Based Defence (NBD), specifically use of simulations within Command and Control (C2) environments, enforces a number of requirements. Simulations must be reliable and be able to respond in a timely manner. Otherwise the commander will have no confidence in using simulation as a tool. An important aspect of these requirements is the provision of fault-tolerant simulations in which failures are detected and resolved in a consistent manner. Given the distributed nature of many military simulations systems, services for fault-tolerance in distributed simulations are desirable. The main architecture for distributed simulations within the military domain, the High Level Architecture (HLA), does not provide support for development of fault-tolerant simulations.

A common approach for fault-tolerance in distributed systems is check-pointing. In this approach, states of the system are persistently stored through-out its operation. In case a failure occurs, the system is restored using a previously saved state. Given the abovementioned shortcomings of the HLA standard this thesis explores development of fault-tolerant mechanisms in the context of the HLA. More specifically, the design, implementation and evaluation of fault-tolerance mechanisms, based on check-pointing, are described and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. viii, 40 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 06:03
Keyword
HLA, fault-tolerance, distributed simulations, federate, federation
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4063 (URN)
Presentation
2006-06-13, Sal D, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, plan 4, Kista, 14:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101111Available from: 2006-06-25 Created: 2006-06-25 Last updated: 2010-11-11Bibliographically approved

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