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A comparison of release rates of Cr, Ni and Fe from stainless steel alloys and the pure metals exposed to simulated rain events
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2123-2201
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2206-0082
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9453-1333
2005 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 152, no 1, B23-B29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to demonstrate differences in metal release rates of Cr, Ni, and Fe from pure metals and stainless steels alloys (grades 304 and 316) exposed to identical simulated rain events. Panels were exposed to two 8 h continuous rain periods, separated by a 40 day dry period, in a specially designed rain chamber which permits artificial rain of known composition to be introduced at a given intensity. The study is intended to provide further knowledge of the behavior of stainless steels exposed to atmospheric corrosion and to show the discrepancy between estimated release rates based on nominal alloy composition and actual, measured release rates. Release rates of Fe and Ni were found to be substantially higher from the pure metals than from the stainless steels due to the presence of a chromium-rich surface film. The release rate of Cr was similar for stainless steel alloys and pure chromium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations after single-rain events showed chromium to be enriched in the surface film upon rain exposure resulting in decreasing release rates of Cr, Ni, and Fe. Comparison between actual release rates of alloy constituents and calculated rates based on the pure metals and the nominal alloy composition, showed calculated data to substantially overestimate release rates of Ni and Fe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 152, no 1, B23-B29 p.
Keyword [en]
Composition; Corrosion; Electrolytic analysis; Iron; Nickel; Rain; Stainless steel; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Alloy composition; Pure metals; Rain events; Stainless steel alloys
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8524DOI: 10.1149/1.1834901ISI: 000225864900043Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-12744274675OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8524DiVA: diva2:13872
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bioaccessibility of Stainless Steels: Importance of Bulk and Surface Features
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioaccessibility of Stainless Steels: Importance of Bulk and Surface Features
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

With increasing environmental awareness, the desire to protect human beings and the environment from adverse effects induced by dispersed metals has become an issue of great concern and interest. New policies, such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) within the European Community, have been implemented to reduce hazards posed by the use of chemicals on producers and downstream users. The generation of exposure assessment data and relevant test procedures able to simulate realistic scenarios are essential in such legislative actions.

This doctoral study was initiated to fill knowledge gaps related to the metal release process of stainless steels. A wide range of stainless steel grades, fourteen in total, were investigated. They cover a very broad range of applications, and the focus in the thesis was to simulate a few selected exposure scenarios: precipitation, the human body and food intake. Comparisons were made between metal release from stainless steel alloys and the pure metals that constitute each stainless steel in order to explore the differences between alloys and pure metals, and to provide quantitative data on metal release rates of different alloy constituents. Because of similar surface properties between stainless steel and pure chromium, this metal exhibits similar release rates, whereas iron and nickel exhibit significantly lower release rates as alloy components than as pure metals. Detailed studies were also performed to elucidate possible relations between metal release and steel surface properties. Key parameters turned out to be chromium enrichment of the self-passivating surface film, surface roughness, the electrochemically active surface area and the microstructure of the steel substrate. The degree of metal release increased with decreasing chromium content in the surface oxide, increasing surface roughness, and increasing presence of inhomogeneities in the bulk matrix.

More detailed studies were initiated to possibly correlate the nucleation of metastable pits and the extent of metal release. Evidence was given that metastable pits exist even when the stainless steel is passive, and may cause extremely short-lived bursts of released metal before the surface film repassivates again.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 73 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:39
Keyword
Stainless steel, iron, chromium, nickel, corrosion, metal release, artificial rain, synthetic body fluids, acetic acid, surface oxide, surface finish
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4773 (URN)978-91-7178-977-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-03, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved

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Herting, GunillaOdnevall Wallinder, IngerLeygraf, Christofer

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