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Corrosion-induced release of chromium and iron from ferritic stainless steel grade AISI 430 in simulated food contact
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2123-2201
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2206-0082
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9453-1333
2008 (English)In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, Vol. 87, no 2, 291-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ferritic stainless steel grade AISI 430 with three different surface finishes, glossy, line and abraded has been evaluated regarding changes in metal release rates and corresponding changes in surface composition when immersed in 3 vol% acetic acid at two different temperatures, 40 degrees C for ten days and 100 degrees C during three consecutive immersions of 30 min each. Test parameter intervals were set by one of the very few regulatory texts for metal release in food applications, the Italian law text D.M. 21-03-1973, Art. 37. The metal release process was found to be strongly dependent on surface area to solution volume ratio where a specific surface finish would be within the allowed limit, 0.1 mg Cr L-1 for the lowest ratio, 0.5 cm, but exceeded for the highest ratio, 2 cm(-1). The amount of released metal increased with increasing temperature and increasing surface roughness (surface finish).

Generated data show the regulatory text insufficient and to provide large degrees of freedom, specifically in terms of defining the surface area to solution volume ratio and the acidic cleaning of test vessels, essential parameters to enable reproducible and relevant migration data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 87, no 2, 291-300 p.
Keyword [en]
metal release; acetic acid; ferritic stainless steel; iron; chromium; cuttlery
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8527DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.12.006ISI: 000254722500016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-39749135591OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8527DiVA: diva2:13875
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bioaccessibility of Stainless Steels: Importance of Bulk and Surface Features
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioaccessibility of Stainless Steels: Importance of Bulk and Surface Features
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

With increasing environmental awareness, the desire to protect human beings and the environment from adverse effects induced by dispersed metals has become an issue of great concern and interest. New policies, such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) within the European Community, have been implemented to reduce hazards posed by the use of chemicals on producers and downstream users. The generation of exposure assessment data and relevant test procedures able to simulate realistic scenarios are essential in such legislative actions.

This doctoral study was initiated to fill knowledge gaps related to the metal release process of stainless steels. A wide range of stainless steel grades, fourteen in total, were investigated. They cover a very broad range of applications, and the focus in the thesis was to simulate a few selected exposure scenarios: precipitation, the human body and food intake. Comparisons were made between metal release from stainless steel alloys and the pure metals that constitute each stainless steel in order to explore the differences between alloys and pure metals, and to provide quantitative data on metal release rates of different alloy constituents. Because of similar surface properties between stainless steel and pure chromium, this metal exhibits similar release rates, whereas iron and nickel exhibit significantly lower release rates as alloy components than as pure metals. Detailed studies were also performed to elucidate possible relations between metal release and steel surface properties. Key parameters turned out to be chromium enrichment of the self-passivating surface film, surface roughness, the electrochemically active surface area and the microstructure of the steel substrate. The degree of metal release increased with decreasing chromium content in the surface oxide, increasing surface roughness, and increasing presence of inhomogeneities in the bulk matrix.

More detailed studies were initiated to possibly correlate the nucleation of metastable pits and the extent of metal release. Evidence was given that metastable pits exist even when the stainless steel is passive, and may cause extremely short-lived bursts of released metal before the surface film repassivates again.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 73 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:39
Keyword
Stainless steel, iron, chromium, nickel, corrosion, metal release, artificial rain, synthetic body fluids, acetic acid, surface oxide, surface finish
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4773 (URN)978-91-7178-977-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-03, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved

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Herting, GunillaOdnevall Wallinder, IngerLeygraf, Christofer

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