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Critical review of water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania
UCLAS, Dept Environm Engn, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .
2008 (English)In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 10, no 1, 57-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite several reforms in the water sector coupled with significant external financial assistance for water development projects, a large population in Tanzania faces water supply problems. This paper analyses issues and problems pertaining to urban and rural water supply services in Tanzania by citing examples from Dar es Salaam City and Singida rural district. Desk study, field visits, discussions and personal observations were used for collecting information. Water supply coverage is 73% and 53% for urban and rural areas, respectively. Only 30% of the population in Dar es Salaam is served by piped water. The unserved poorer segments of the population pay higher for water services. The water distribution systems are worn out and account for 60% of water loss. Inadequate coverage of water supply is associated with prevalence of waterborne diseases. Urban water authorities are inefficient in financial management. Water tariffs are low, ranging between US$ 0.25 and US$ 0.35/m(3)/month and unregistered customers exceed 110, 000. Singida rural water sources include dams, shallow and deep wells. About 70% of installed pumps are impaired owing to poor management. Rural populations use polluted sources which are purified using local seeds. Finally the paper gives recommendations for improving water supply services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 10, no 1, 57-71 p.
Keyword [en]
cholera; local seeds; rural water supply; Tanzania; urban water supply
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8562DOI: 10.2166/wp.2007.029ISI: 000252490800004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8562DiVA: diva2:13919
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Water Supply in Tanzania and Performance of Local Plant Materials in Purification of Turbid Water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water Supply in Tanzania and Performance of Local Plant Materials in Purification of Turbid Water
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania were reviewed and specific studies were carried out on water supply and on purification of turbid water sources using locally available plant materials in rural villages of Singida Rural District. The review showed that large proportions of urban and rural populations in Tanzania face acute water supply problems mainly due to poor planning, implementation and management of water supply projects, including an inability to address social, technical, operation and maintenance and financial issues. Laboratory-scale experiments studied the effectiveness of crude seed extracts (CSEs) and purified proteins of Vigna unguiculata (VUP), Parkinsonia aculeata (PAP) and Voandzeia subterranea (VS) seeds, which are used traditionally for clarification of turbid water. The VUP and PAP were purified from CSEs using simple and straightforward two-step ion exchange chromatography. The coagulant proteins are thermoresistant and have a wide pH range for coagulation activity. Coagulation of turbid waters with CSEs, VUP and PAP produced low sludge volumes and removed turbidity along with other inorganic contaminants in line with Tanzania drinking water quality standards. The PAP also showed antimicrobial effect against river water bacteria. Citrus fruit juice (CF) enhanced the coagulation of turbid water by CSEs and inhibited bacterial growth, rendering it useful for disinfection of water prior to drinking in rural areas. It was concluded that natural coagulants should not be regarded as a panacea for rural water supply problems, but rather a tool in the development of sustainable water supply services in Tanzania.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. xii, 38 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1042
Keyword
Antibacterial effect; Coagulant proteins; Vigna unguiculata; Parkinsonia aculeata; Ion exchange; Tanzania water supply
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4781 (URN)978-91-7415-016-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-10, F3, Conference Hall, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved

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