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Water Supply in Tanzania and Performance of Local Plant Materials in Purification of Turbid Water
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania were reviewed and specific studies were carried out on water supply and on purification of turbid water sources using locally available plant materials in rural villages of Singida Rural District. The review showed that large proportions of urban and rural populations in Tanzania face acute water supply problems mainly due to poor planning, implementation and management of water supply projects, including an inability to address social, technical, operation and maintenance and financial issues. Laboratory-scale experiments studied the effectiveness of crude seed extracts (CSEs) and purified proteins of Vigna unguiculata (VUP), Parkinsonia aculeata (PAP) and Voandzeia subterranea (VS) seeds, which are used traditionally for clarification of turbid water. The VUP and PAP were purified from CSEs using simple and straightforward two-step ion exchange chromatography. The coagulant proteins are thermoresistant and have a wide pH range for coagulation activity. Coagulation of turbid waters with CSEs, VUP and PAP produced low sludge volumes and removed turbidity along with other inorganic contaminants in line with Tanzania drinking water quality standards. The PAP also showed antimicrobial effect against river water bacteria. Citrus fruit juice (CF) enhanced the coagulation of turbid water by CSEs and inhibited bacterial growth, rendering it useful for disinfection of water prior to drinking in rural areas. It was concluded that natural coagulants should not be regarded as a panacea for rural water supply problems, but rather a tool in the development of sustainable water supply services in Tanzania.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , xii, 38 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1042
Keyword [en]
Antibacterial effect; Coagulant proteins; Vigna unguiculata; Parkinsonia aculeata; Ion exchange; Tanzania water supply
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4781ISBN: 978-91-7415-016-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4781DiVA: diva2:13925
Public defence
2008-06-10, F3, Conference Hall, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Critical review of water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical review of water supply services in urban and rural areas of Tanzania
2008 (English)In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, Vol. 10, no 1, 57-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite several reforms in the water sector coupled with significant external financial assistance for water development projects, a large population in Tanzania faces water supply problems. This paper analyses issues and problems pertaining to urban and rural water supply services in Tanzania by citing examples from Dar es Salaam City and Singida rural district. Desk study, field visits, discussions and personal observations were used for collecting information. Water supply coverage is 73% and 53% for urban and rural areas, respectively. Only 30% of the population in Dar es Salaam is served by piped water. The unserved poorer segments of the population pay higher for water services. The water distribution systems are worn out and account for 60% of water loss. Inadequate coverage of water supply is associated with prevalence of waterborne diseases. Urban water authorities are inefficient in financial management. Water tariffs are low, ranging between US$ 0.25 and US$ 0.35/m(3)/month and unregistered customers exceed 110, 000. Singida rural water sources include dams, shallow and deep wells. About 70% of installed pumps are impaired owing to poor management. Rural populations use polluted sources which are purified using local seeds. Finally the paper gives recommendations for improving water supply services.

Keyword
cholera; local seeds; rural water supply; Tanzania; urban water supply
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8562 (URN)10.2166/wp.2007.029 (DOI)000252490800004 ()
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
2. The study of water supply and traditional water purification knowledge in selected rural villages in Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The study of water supply and traditional water purification knowledge in selected rural villages in Tanzania
2007 (English)In: Indigenous knowledge systems and sustainable development: Relevance for Africa / [ed] Emmanuel K Boon, Luc Hens, Delhi: Kamla Raj Enterprises , 2007, 111-120 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Delhi: Kamla Raj Enterprises, 2007
Series
Studies of tribels and tribals, ISSN 0972-639X ; Special Volume No. 1
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8563 (URN)81-85264-44-9 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
3. Investigation on the performance of local plant materials for coagulation of turbid river water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation on the performance of local plant materials for coagulation of turbid river water
2007 (English)In: Journal of the Institution of Engineers Tanzania, ISSN 0856-0196, Vol. 8, no 3, 50-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Citrus aurantifolia; coagulation; local seeds; turbidity; physical parameters
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8564 (URN)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
4. Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata
2007 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, Vol. 28, no 6, 671-681 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The coagulating properties of aqueous crude extracts and purified proteins of Vigna unguicilata and Parkinsomia aculeata seeds, which are traditional water coagulants in rural areas of Tanzania, were studied. The coagulation activity assays were done using one millilitre (ml) of kaolin water samples. Coagulating proteins were purified in two-step ion exchange chromatography. The properties of coagulant protein were compared with Moringa oleifera. Coagulating components eluted by 0.6 M NaCl in both coagulants are cationic proteins that have the molecular mass of about 6 kDa, which is very similar to that of M. oleifera. The proteins of V. unguiculata and P. aculeata eluted by 0.3 M NaCl also harbour coagulation activity but proteins eluted with 0.6 M NaCl have higher activity. The dosage for coagulation using purified proteins of both coagulants is about 5 to 10 times lower than that of crude seed extracts. The optimum floc settling time of water treated by crude seed extracts and purified proteins ranged between two and two and half hours. Coagulating proteins of both coagulants elated by 0.6 M NaCl are thermoresistant and retained coagulation activity of 87% to 92% after boiling for two hours at 80 degrees C and one hour at 95 degrees C. Thermotolerant proteins of V. unguiculata eluted by 0.6 M NaCl and P. aculeata have wider pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 for coagulation activity than those of M. oleifera proteins. The present investigation reveals the possibility of using purified natural coagulants for water treatment to produce safe drinking water.

Keyword
coagulation activity; local seeds; proteins; turbidity removal; extraction
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8565 (URN)10.1080/09593332808618827 (DOI)000247827800008 ()2-s2.0-34447125279 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
5. Effect of coagulant protein from Vigna and Parkinsonia seeds on bacteria isolated from Ruvu River in Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of coagulant protein from Vigna and Parkinsonia seeds on bacteria isolated from Ruvu River in Tanzania
2008 (English)In: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 0959-3993, E-ISSN 1573-0972Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Vigna unguiculata; River water; Parkinsonia aculeata; Coagulant protein; Antimicrobial effect; Bacteria
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8566 (URN)
Note
QS 20120315Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2012-03-15Bibliographically approved
6. Purification of water from small man-made reservoirs by coagulation using purified proteins from Vigna and Parkinsonia seeds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Purification of water from small man-made reservoirs by coagulation using purified proteins from Vigna and Parkinsonia seeds
2008 (English)In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Coagulant proteins; Charco dams; Purification; Rural areas; Local seeds
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8567 (URN)
Note
QS 20120315Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2012-03-15Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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