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Effect of SRTM Resolution on Morphometric Feature Identification Using Neural Network-Self Organizing Map
International Research Center For Living With Desert, University of Tehran.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Environmental and Natural Resources Information System.
International Research Center for Living with Desert, University of Tehran.
2010 (English)In: Geoinformatica, ISSN 1384-6175, E-ISSN 1573-7624, Vol. 14, no 4, 405-424 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we present a semi-automatic procedure using Neural Networks-Self Organizing Map-and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEMs to characterize morphometric features of the landscape in the Man and Biosphere Reserve "Eastern Carpathians". We investigate specially the effect of two resolutions, SIR-C with 3 arc seconds and X-SAR with 1 arc second for morphometric feature identification. Specifically we investigate how the SRTM/C band data with 30 m interpolated grid, corresponding to SRTM/X band 30 m, affect the morphometric characterization and topography derivatives. To reduce misregistration between the DEMs, spatial co-registration was performed and a RMSE of 0.48 pixel was achieved. Morphometric parameters such as slope, maximum curvature, minimum curvature and cross-sectional curvature are derived using a bivariate quadratic approximation on 90 m, 30 m and interpolated 30 m DEMs. Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used for the classification of morphometric parameters into ten exclusive and exhaustive classes. These classes were analyzed as morphometric features such as ridge, channel, crest line and planar for all data sets based on feature space (scatter plot), morphometric signatures and 3D inspection of the area. The map quality is analyzed by oblique views with contour lines overlaid. Using the X band DEM with 30 m grid as benchmark, a change detection technique was used to quantify differences in morphometric features and to assess the scale effect going from a 90 m (C-band) DEM to an interpolated 30 m DEM. The same procedure is used to study the effect of different resolutions on morphometric features. Morphometric parameters were computed by a moving window size 5 x 5 (corresponding to 450 m on the ground) over SRTM- 90 m. To cover the same ground area, a moving window size of 15 x 15 is used for the 30 m DEM. The change analysis showed the amount of resolution dependency of morphometric features. Overall, the results showed that the introduced method is very useful for identification of morphometric features based on SRTM resolution. Decreasing the grid size from 90 m to 30 m reveals considerably more detailed information emphasizing local conditions. Comparison between results from DEM-30 m as reference data set and interpolated 30 m, showed a rate of change of 31.5% which is negligible. About 17% of this rate correspond to classes with mean slope > 10A degrees. Of the morphometric parameters, the cross sectional curvature is most sensitive to DEM resolution. Increasing spatial resolution reduces the main constrains for morphometric analysis with SRTM 90 m data, such as unrealistic features and isolated single elements in the output map. So in case of lack of high resolution data, the SRTM 90 m data could be interpolated and used for further geomorphic analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 14, no 4, 405-424 p.
Keyword [en]
Self organizing map, SRTM, Neural network, Morphometric features, Resolution
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8595DOI: 10.1007/s10707-009-0085-4ISI: 000279082900001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-77954029474OAI: diva2:13960
QC 20100924. Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20100924).Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2010-09-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Morphometric and Landscape Feature Analysis with Artificial Neural Networks and SRTM data: Applications in Humid and Arid Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphometric and Landscape Feature Analysis with Artificial Neural Networks and SRTM data: Applications in Humid and Arid Environments
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a semi-automatic method to analyze morphometric features and landscape elements based on Self Organizing Map (SOM) as an unsupervised Artificial Neural Network algorithm in two completely different environments: 1) the Man and Biosphere Reserve “Eastern Carpathians” (Central Europe) as a complex mountainous humid area and 2) Lut Desert, Iran, a hyper arid region characterized by repetition of wind-eroded features.

In 2003, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) released the SRTM/ SIR-C band data with 3 arc seconds (approx. 90 m resolution) grid for approximately 80 % of Earth’s land surface. The X-band SRTM data were processed with a 1 arc second (approx. 30 m resolution) grid by the German space agency, DLR and the Italian space agency ASI, but due to the smaller X-SAR ground swath, large areas are not covered. The latest version 3.0 SRTM/C DEM and SRTM/X band DEM were re-projected to 90 and 30 m UTM grid and used to generate morphometric parameters of first order (slope) and second order (cross-sectional curvature, maximum curvatures and minimum curvature) by using a bivariate quadratic surface. The morphometric parameters are then used in a SOM to identify morphometric features (or landform elements) e.g. planar, channel, ridge in mountainous areas or yardangs (ridge) and corridors (valley) in hyper-arid areas.

Geomorphic phenomena and features are scale-dependent and the characteristics of features vary when measured over different spatial extents or different spatial resolution. Morphometric parameters were derived for nine window sizes of the 90 m DEM ranging from 5 × 5 to 55 ×55. Analysis of the SOM output represents landform entities with ground areas from 450 m to 4950 m that is local to regional scale features. Effect of two SRTM resolutions, C and X bands is studied on morphometric feature identification. The difference change analysis revealed the quantity of resolution dependency of morphometric features. Increasing the DEM spatial resolution from 90 to 30 m (corresponding to X band) by interpolation resulted in a significant improvement of terrain derivatives and morphometric feature identification.

Integration of morphometric parameters with climate data (e.g. Sum of active temperature above 10 ° C) in SOM resulted in delineation of morphologically homogenous discrete geo-ecological units. These units were reclassified to produce a Potential Natural Vegetation map. Finally, we combined morphometric parameters and remotely sensed spectral data from Landsat ETM+ to identify and characterize landscape elements. The single integrated data set of geo-ecosystems shows the spatial distribution of geomorphic, climatic and biotic/cultural properties in the Eastern Carpathians.

The results demonstrate that a SOM is a very efficient tool to analyze geo-morphometric features under diverse environmental conditions and at different scales and resolution. Finer resolution and decreasing window size reveals information that is more detailed while increasing window size and coarser resolution emphasizes more regional patterns. It was also successfully applied to integrate climatic, morphometric parameters and Landsat ETM+ data for landscape analysis. Despite the stochastic nature of SOM, the results are not sensitive to randomization of initial weight vectors if many iterations are used. This procedure is reproducible with consistent results.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen presenterar en halvautomatisk metod för att analysera morfometriska kännetecken och landskapselement som bygger på Self Organizing Map (SOM), en oövervakad Artificiell Neural Nätverk algoritm, i två helt skilda miljöer: 1) Man and Biosphere Reserve "Eastern Carpathians" (Centraleuropa) som är ett komplext, bergigt och humid område och 2) Lut öken, Iran, en extrem torr region som kännetecknas av återkommande vinderoderade objekt.

Basen för undersökningen är det C-band SRTM digital höjd modell (DEM) med 3 bågsekunder rutnät som National Aeronautics and Space Administration släppte 2003 för ungefär 80 % av jordens yta. Dessutom används i ett mindre område X-band SRTM DEM med 1 bågsekund rutnät av den tyska rymdagenturen DLR. DEM transformerades till 90 och 30 m UTM nätet och därav genererades morfometriska parametrar av första (lutning) och andra ordning (tvärsnittböjning, största och minsta böjning). De morfometriska parametrar används sedan i en SOM för att identifiera morfometriska objekt (eller landform element) t.ex. plan yta, kanal, kam i bergsområden eller yardangs (kam) och korridorer (dalgångar) i extrem torra områden.

Geomorfiska fenomen och objekt är skalberoende och kännetecken varierar med geografiska områden och upplösning. Morfometriska parametrar har härletts från 90 m DEM för nio fönsterstorlekar från 5 × 5 till 55 × 55. Resultaten representerar landform enheter för områden från 450 m till 4950 m på marken dvs. lokal till regional skala. Inflytande av två SRTM upplösningar i C och X-banden har studerats för identifikation av morfometriska objekt. Förändringsanalys visade storleken av upplösningsberoende av morfometriska objekt. Ökning av DEM upplösningen från 90 till 30 m (motsvarande X-bandet) genom interpolation resulterade i en betydande förbättring av terräng parametrar och identifiering av morfometriska objekt.

Integration av morfometriska parametrar med klimatdata (t.ex. summan av aktiv temperatur över 10° C) i SOM resulterade i avgränsningen av homogena geoekologiska enheter. Dessa enheter ha används för att producera en karta av potentiell naturlig vegetation. Slutligen har vi kombinerat morfometriska parametrar och multispektrala fjärranalysdata från Landsat ETM för att identifiera och karaktärisera landskapselement. Dessa integrerade ekosystem data visar den geografiska fördelningen av morfometriska, klimatologiska och biotiska/kulturella egenskaper i östra Karpaterna.

Resultaten visar att SOM är ett mycket effektivt verktyg för att analysera geomorfometriska egenskaper under skilda miljöförhållanden, i olika skalor och upplösningar. Finare upplösning och minskad fönsterstorlek visar information som är mer detaljerad. Ökad fönsterstorlek och grövre upplösning betonar mer regionala mönster. Det var också mycket framgångsrikt att integrera klimatiska och morfometriska parametrar med Landsat ETM data för landskapsanalys. Trots den stokastiska natur av SOM, är resultaten inte känsliga för slumpvisa värden i de ursprungliga viktvektorerna när många iterationer används. Detta förfarande är reproducerbart med bestående resultat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. viii, 71 p.
Self Organizing Map, Neural Network, Morphometric Feature, Landscape, Yardang, Lut Desert, Potential natural vegetation, geoecosystem, Landform, Landsat ETM+, Morphometric Parameters, SRTM, Resolution, Curvatures, DEM.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4789 (URN)978-91-7415-010-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-11, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, 13:15
QC 20100924Available from: 2008-06-02 Created: 2008-06-02 Last updated: 2011-09-01Bibliographically approved

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