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High-performance 1.3-μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9040-4740
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2003 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 39, no 15, 1128-1129 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A report is presented on high-performance InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with record long emission wavelengths up to 1300 nm. Due to a large gain-cavity detuning these VCSELs show excellent temperature performance with very stable threshold current and output power characteristics. For 1.27 mum singlemode devices the threshold current is found to decrease from 2 to 1 mA between 10 and 90degreesC, while the peak output power only drops from 1 to 0.6 mW Large-area 1300 nm VCSELs show multimode output power close to 3 mW.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 39, no 15, 1128-1129 p.
Keyword [en]
Electric currents; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting gallium arsenide; Semiconducting indium compounds; Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8620DOI: 10.1049/el:20030733ISI: 000184642900023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8620DiVA: diva2:13992
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design and fabrication of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers on GaAs substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and fabrication of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers on GaAs substrates
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are today a commodity on the short wavelength laser market due to the ease with which they are manufactured. Much effort has in the last decade been directed towards making long wavelength VCSELs as successful in the marketplace. This has not been achieved due to the much more difficult fabrication technologies needed for realising high performance long wavelength VCSELs. At one point, GaInNAs quantum wells gain regions grown on GaAs substrates seemed to be the solution as it enabled all-epitaxial VCSELs that could make use of high contrast AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) as mirrors and lateral selective oxidation for optical and electrical confinement, thereby mimicking the successful design of short wavelength VCSELs. Although very good device results were achieved, reproducible and reliable epitaxial growth of GaInNAs quantum wells proved difficult and the technology has not made its way into high-volume production. Other approaches to the manufacturing and material problems have been to combine mature InP-based gain regions with high contrast AlGaAs-based DBRs by wafer fusion or with high contrast dielectric DBRs. Commonly, a patterned tunnel junction provides the electrical confinement in these VCSELs. Excellent performance has been achieved in this way but the fabrication process is difficult.

In this work, we have employed high strain InGaAs quantum wells along with large detuning between the gain peak and the emission wavelength to realize GaAs-based long wavelength VCSELs. All-epitaxial VCSELs with AlGaAs-based DBRs and lateral oxidation confinement were fabricated and evaluated. The efficiency of these VCSELs was limited due to the optical absorption in the doped DBRs. To improve the efficiency and manufacturability, two novel optical and electrical confinement schemes based on epitaxial regrowth of current blocking layers were developed. The first scheme is based on a single regrowth step and requires very precise processing. This scheme was therefore not developed beyond the first generation but single mode power of 0.3 mW at low temperature, -10ºC, was achieved. The second scheme is based on two epitaxial regrowth steps and does not require as precise processing. Several generations of this design were manufactured and resulted in record high power of 8 mW at low temperature, 5ºC, and more than 3 mW at high temperature, 85ºC. Single mode power was more modest with 1.5 mW at low temperature and 0.8 mW at high temperature, comparable to the performance of the single mode lateral oxidation confined VCSELs. The reason for the modest single mode power was found to be a non-optimal cavity shape after the second regrowth that leads to poor lateral overlap between the gain in the quantum wells and the intensity of the optical field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 79 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:10
Keyword
VCSEL, Selective Area Epitaxy, Epitaxial regrowth, Laser
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4795 (URN)978-91-7178-990-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-12, N2, Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28 A/D, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
2. Development of 1.3-μm GaAs-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of 1.3-μm GaAs-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are desirable as low-cost sources for optical metropolitan-area and access networks. In the development of 1.3-µm VCSELs, most attention today is given to monolithic GaAs-based solutions, although no established active material exists in this wavelength region. This thesis investigates the possibility of reaching the 1.3-µm telecom wavelength window using GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs) or 1.2-µm InGaAs QWs in conjunction with negative gain-cavity detuning in VCSELs. The work includes metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and characterization of InGaAs and GaInNAs QWs, realization of 1.3-µm InGaAs VCSELs as well as elements of optimization and analysis of such lasers. The evaluation of GaInNAs and InGaAs QWs has been performed using a number of characterization methods such as photoluminescence (PL), high-resolution x-ray diffraction, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy as well as fabrication and evaluation of broad-area lasers (BALs).

Both performance and growth reproducibility of GaInNAs QWs are considered and could be improved by using high V/III ratios. Nontrivial relations between PL and laser performance are pointed out and the technologically important but problematic combination of AlGaAs and GaInNAs in the same epitaxial structure is studied. Parallel to the work on GaInNAs, the possibility of extending the wavelength of InGaAs QWs towards 1.3 µm has been investigated. Generally better luminescence efficiency and laser performance are obtained for InGaAs than for GaInNAs QWs, but the gain-peak wavelength for InGaAs QWs is presently limited to about 1.24 µm due to strain-induced degradation. In this work the InGaAs QW growth is optimized for long wavelength and high luminescence. It is demonstrated that multiple QW structures can be grown with strain similar to that of single QWs, which is interesting for VCSEL applications. Record BALs with two to five InGaAs/GaAs QWs have low threshold current densities,  70 A/cm2 per QW at 1.24 µm. The main advantage of InGaAs QWs compared to GaInNAs QWs is that they represent a better-known material system with less complex and more stable growth. However, InGaAs QWs > 1.2 µm are on the verge of strain relaxation, and the possible consequences for laser production and reliability have to be considered.

Using 1.2-µm InGaAs QWs, high-performance 1.3-µm VCSELs were achieved by negative gain-cavity detuning. Dynamic performance and surface reliefs to improve the single-mode operation have been investigated. The VCSELs have excellent high-temperature performance due to a smaller spectral distance between the gain-peak and the laser mode at elevated temperature. More specifically, a 1.27-µm single-mode device showed maximum output powers of 1.1 and 0.5 mW at 20 and 140ºC, which is state-of-the-art for GaAs-based long-wavelength VCSELs.

In all, two methods for 1.3-µm GaAs-based VCSELs, GaInNAs and InGaAs QWs, have been investigated. GaInNAs is a difficult material but is still promising and several companies have predicted a near-future market introduction. However, the growth of GaInNAs is both complex and sensitive to growth fluctuations. On the other hand, gain-cavity detuned InGaAs-QW VCSELs show state-of-the-art performance at 1260-1290 nm with straightforward growth and processing. The devices exhibit good static and dynamic performance, and preliminary reliability tests indicate that there is no intrinsic problem. Both approaches are promising for application in real-world optical networks and deserve further attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 65 p.
Series
Trita-HMA, ISSN 1404-0379 ; 2005:1
Keyword
Physics, Fysik
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263 (URN)
Public defence
2005-06-10, Sal C1, KTH-Elektrum, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved

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Hammar, Mattias

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