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Fabrication and performance of 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with InGaAs quantum well active regions grown on GaAs substrates
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9040-4740
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2004 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5443, 229-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe the development of long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Using highly strained double-quantum wells (DQWs) in combination with negative gain-cavity detuning we have been able to realise such VCSELs with emission wavelength up to 1300 nm. High-performance device characteristics include mW-range output power, mA-range threshold currents, 10 Gbit/s data transmission and very good temperature stability with continuous-wave operation up to at least 140degreesC. Singlemode emission is realised using an integrated mode filter consisting of a patterned silicon layer on the out-coupling mirror surface, yielding output power and threshold currents for 1270-nm devices of 1.2 - 0.5 mW and 2.3 - 0.6 mA, respectively, over a temperature interval of 10 - 140degreesC. Multimode devices have been found to deliver more than 2 mW at 1290 nm. Preliminary lifetime measurements do not reveal any intrinsic reliability problems related to the highly strained quantum wells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 5443, 229-239 p.
Keyword [en]
long wavelength; vertical cavity laser; InGaAs quantum well
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8621DOI: 10.1117/12.547272ISI: 000224368500022Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-12344323707OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8621DiVA: diva2:13993
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design and fabrication of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers on GaAs substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and fabrication of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers on GaAs substrates
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are today a commodity on the short wavelength laser market due to the ease with which they are manufactured. Much effort has in the last decade been directed towards making long wavelength VCSELs as successful in the marketplace. This has not been achieved due to the much more difficult fabrication technologies needed for realising high performance long wavelength VCSELs. At one point, GaInNAs quantum wells gain regions grown on GaAs substrates seemed to be the solution as it enabled all-epitaxial VCSELs that could make use of high contrast AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) as mirrors and lateral selective oxidation for optical and electrical confinement, thereby mimicking the successful design of short wavelength VCSELs. Although very good device results were achieved, reproducible and reliable epitaxial growth of GaInNAs quantum wells proved difficult and the technology has not made its way into high-volume production. Other approaches to the manufacturing and material problems have been to combine mature InP-based gain regions with high contrast AlGaAs-based DBRs by wafer fusion or with high contrast dielectric DBRs. Commonly, a patterned tunnel junction provides the electrical confinement in these VCSELs. Excellent performance has been achieved in this way but the fabrication process is difficult.

In this work, we have employed high strain InGaAs quantum wells along with large detuning between the gain peak and the emission wavelength to realize GaAs-based long wavelength VCSELs. All-epitaxial VCSELs with AlGaAs-based DBRs and lateral oxidation confinement were fabricated and evaluated. The efficiency of these VCSELs was limited due to the optical absorption in the doped DBRs. To improve the efficiency and manufacturability, two novel optical and electrical confinement schemes based on epitaxial regrowth of current blocking layers were developed. The first scheme is based on a single regrowth step and requires very precise processing. This scheme was therefore not developed beyond the first generation but single mode power of 0.3 mW at low temperature, -10ºC, was achieved. The second scheme is based on two epitaxial regrowth steps and does not require as precise processing. Several generations of this design were manufactured and resulted in record high power of 8 mW at low temperature, 5ºC, and more than 3 mW at high temperature, 85ºC. Single mode power was more modest with 1.5 mW at low temperature and 0.8 mW at high temperature, comparable to the performance of the single mode lateral oxidation confined VCSELs. The reason for the modest single mode power was found to be a non-optimal cavity shape after the second regrowth that leads to poor lateral overlap between the gain in the quantum wells and the intensity of the optical field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 79 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:10
Keyword
VCSEL, Selective Area Epitaxy, Epitaxial regrowth, Laser
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4795 (URN)978-91-7178-990-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-12, N2, Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28 A/D, Kista, 10:00
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Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved

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Hammar, Mattias

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