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Design and fabrication of long wavelength vertical cavity lasers on GaAs substrates
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are today a commodity on the short wavelength laser market due to the ease with which they are manufactured. Much effort has in the last decade been directed towards making long wavelength VCSELs as successful in the marketplace. This has not been achieved due to the much more difficult fabrication technologies needed for realising high performance long wavelength VCSELs. At one point, GaInNAs quantum wells gain regions grown on GaAs substrates seemed to be the solution as it enabled all-epitaxial VCSELs that could make use of high contrast AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) as mirrors and lateral selective oxidation for optical and electrical confinement, thereby mimicking the successful design of short wavelength VCSELs. Although very good device results were achieved, reproducible and reliable epitaxial growth of GaInNAs quantum wells proved difficult and the technology has not made its way into high-volume production. Other approaches to the manufacturing and material problems have been to combine mature InP-based gain regions with high contrast AlGaAs-based DBRs by wafer fusion or with high contrast dielectric DBRs. Commonly, a patterned tunnel junction provides the electrical confinement in these VCSELs. Excellent performance has been achieved in this way but the fabrication process is difficult.

In this work, we have employed high strain InGaAs quantum wells along with large detuning between the gain peak and the emission wavelength to realize GaAs-based long wavelength VCSELs. All-epitaxial VCSELs with AlGaAs-based DBRs and lateral oxidation confinement were fabricated and evaluated. The efficiency of these VCSELs was limited due to the optical absorption in the doped DBRs. To improve the efficiency and manufacturability, two novel optical and electrical confinement schemes based on epitaxial regrowth of current blocking layers were developed. The first scheme is based on a single regrowth step and requires very precise processing. This scheme was therefore not developed beyond the first generation but single mode power of 0.3 mW at low temperature, -10ºC, was achieved. The second scheme is based on two epitaxial regrowth steps and does not require as precise processing. Several generations of this design were manufactured and resulted in record high power of 8 mW at low temperature, 5ºC, and more than 3 mW at high temperature, 85ºC. Single mode power was more modest with 1.5 mW at low temperature and 0.8 mW at high temperature, comparable to the performance of the single mode lateral oxidation confined VCSELs. The reason for the modest single mode power was found to be a non-optimal cavity shape after the second regrowth that leads to poor lateral overlap between the gain in the quantum wells and the intensity of the optical field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , 79 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:10
Keyword [en]
VCSEL, Selective Area Epitaxy, Epitaxial regrowth, Laser
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4795ISBN: 978-91-7178-990-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4795DiVA: diva2:14000
Public defence
2008-06-12, N2, Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28 A/D, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High-performance 1.3-μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-performance 1.3-μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
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2003 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 39, no 15, 1128-1129 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A report is presented on high-performance InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with record long emission wavelengths up to 1300 nm. Due to a large gain-cavity detuning these VCSELs show excellent temperature performance with very stable threshold current and output power characteristics. For 1.27 mum singlemode devices the threshold current is found to decrease from 2 to 1 mA between 10 and 90degreesC, while the peak output power only drops from 1 to 0.6 mW Large-area 1300 nm VCSELs show multimode output power close to 3 mW.

Keyword
Electric currents; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting gallium arsenide; Semiconducting indium compounds; Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8620 (URN)10.1049/el:20030733 (DOI)000184642900023 ()
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Fabrication and performance of 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with InGaAs quantum well active regions grown on GaAs substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication and performance of 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with InGaAs quantum well active regions grown on GaAs substrates
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2004 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5443, 229-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe the development of long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Using highly strained double-quantum wells (DQWs) in combination with negative gain-cavity detuning we have been able to realise such VCSELs with emission wavelength up to 1300 nm. High-performance device characteristics include mW-range output power, mA-range threshold currents, 10 Gbit/s data transmission and very good temperature stability with continuous-wave operation up to at least 140degreesC. Singlemode emission is realised using an integrated mode filter consisting of a patterned silicon layer on the out-coupling mirror surface, yielding output power and threshold currents for 1270-nm devices of 1.2 - 0.5 mW and 2.3 - 0.6 mA, respectively, over a temperature interval of 10 - 140degreesC. Multimode devices have been found to deliver more than 2 mW at 1290 nm. Preliminary lifetime measurements do not reveal any intrinsic reliability problems related to the highly strained quantum wells.

Keyword
long wavelength; vertical cavity laser; InGaAs quantum well
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8621 (URN)10.1117/12.547272 (DOI)000224368500022 ()2-s2.0-12344323707 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. 1.3 μm InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with mode filter for single mode operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1.3 μm InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with mode filter for single mode operation
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2004 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, no 21, 4851-4853 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the performance and analysis of 1.3 mum range InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with an integrated mode filter consisting of a patterned silicon layer on the top distributer Bragg reflector. In this way, 1 mW of single mode power is obtained from a device with a wavelength of 1265 nm and a threshold current of 2.6 mA at room temperature. An effective index model is used to extract the internal and external losses of the VCSEL structure and to predict the modal losses with and without mode filter, thereby providing a useful design tool for single mode VCSELs.

Keyword
Lasers; Modal analysis; Silicon; Thermal effects; Wave filters
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5287 (URN)10.1063/1.1823012 (DOI)000225300600008 ()2-s2.0-19144364842 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100817 QC 20110916Available from: 2005-06-07 Created: 2005-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics
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2005 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 21, 211109-1-211109-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamic performance of InGaAs/GaAs 1.27 μ m single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. In order to reach such a long wavelength, the devices utilize highly strained double-quantum wells and a large detuning between the material gain peak and cavity resonance. It is found that the large detuning improves the temperature stability of both static and modulation characteristics. A resonance frequency of 7.8-9.5 GHz and optical power of 0.30 mW in fiber was maintained throughout the investigated temperature range of 20-90 ° C. The intrinsic response of the device suggests that long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs have the potential to be used as low cost uncooled optical transmitters at 10 Gbit/s. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Keyword
Dispersion (waves); Modulation; Resonance; Semiconducting indium gallium arsenide; Semiconductor quantum wells; Thermodynamic stability; Optical transmitters; Resonance frequency; Surface emitting lasers; Temperature tolerant modulation characteristics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8623 (URN)10.1063/1.1935755 (DOI)000229544200009 ()2-s2.0-20844447649 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. A novel electrical and optical confinement scheme for surface emitting optoelectronic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel electrical and optical confinement scheme for surface emitting optoelectronic devices
2006 (English)In: WORKSHOP ON OPTICAL COMPONENTS FOR BROADBAND COMMUNICATION / [ed] Fonjallaz, PY; Pearsall, TP, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, Vol. 6350, 63500J-1-63500J-10 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel electrical and optical confinement scheme for surface emitting optoelectronic devices is presented. The scheme is based on epitaxial regrowth of a pnp current blocking layer structure around a mesa etched in the vertical cavity region of the device. The lateral size and orientation of the mesa is defined lithographically and dry etching is used to create vertical mesa sidewalls. By orienting the mesa sidewalls in certain crystallographic directions, it is possible to selectively grow a current blocking pnp layer structure on the exposed n-type lower cladding layer of the cavity whithout obstructing the electrical injection into the active region. The concept is evaluated in 1.2-mu m GaAs-based light emitting diodes with InGaAs quantum wells. This type of structure can easily be used as the amplifying region of a vertical cavity laser, providing a good alternative to selective oxidation confinement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2006
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 6350
Keyword
Mesa sidewalls; Optical confinement; Vertical cavity; Electric properties; Epitaxial growth; Light emitting diodes; Optical properties; Photolithography; Semiconductor quantum wells
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8624 (URN)10.1117/12.692904 (DOI)000241328400014 ()2-s2.0-33749840435 (Scopus ID)0-8194-6445-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Workshop on Optical Components for Broadband Communication. Stockholm, SWEDEN. JUN 28-29, 2006
Note
QC 20100825 QC 20111004Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2011-10-04Bibliographically approved
6. Optical loss and interface morphology in AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical loss and interface morphology in AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors
2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 10, 101101- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is shown that n-type doping of AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy has a profound negative impact on the performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on such mirrors. Using an intracavity contact scheme, 1.3-mu m-range InGaAs VCSELs with and without doping in the bottom DBR are directly compared. Doped mirrors lead to lower slope efficiency, lower output power, and higher threshold current. From x-ray diffraction, high-accuracy reflectance measurements, and atomic force microscopy studies, it is suggested that this performance degradation is due to the doping-enhanced Al-Ga interdiffusion, leading to interface roughening and increased scattering loss.

Keyword
Metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy; Optical losses; Semiconducting aluminum compounds; Semiconductor doping; Surface emitting lasers; X ray diffraction; High-accuracy reflectance measurements; Interface morphology; Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8625 (URN)10.1063/1.2779242 (DOI)000249322900001 ()2-s2.0-34548480155 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. High-power InGaAs/GaAs 1.3 μm VCSELs based on novel electrical confinement scheme
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-power InGaAs/GaAs 1.3 μm VCSELs based on novel electrical confinement scheme
2008 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 44, no 6, 414-416 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reported are 1.3 mu m InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a novel electrical confinement scheme based on lithographic definition and selective area epitaxial regrowth in the cavity region. More than 6 mW of output power with a record high differential efficiency of more than 70% is emitted from 10 mu m large devices.

Keyword
Epitaxial growth; Lithography; Semiconducting indium gallium arsenide; Cavity region; Differential efficiency; Electrical confinement scheme
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8626 (URN)10.1049/el:20080056 (DOI)000254797500016 ()2-s2.0-40749119753 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. Performance optimisation of epitaxially regrown 1.3-μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance optimisation of epitaxially regrown 1.3-μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
2009 (English)In: IET Optoelectronics, ISSN 1751-8768, Vol. 3, no 2, 112-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of GaAs-based long-wavelength, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting laser structures with optical and electrical confinement based on selective area epitaxy have been fabricated and evaluated. The influence on output power, threshold current, thermal stability and modal properties from design parameters such as bottom-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) doping, cavity doping, dielectric top DBR design and carrier confinement barriers is evaluated. More than 7 mW of output power is emitted from multimode devices with a square active region size of 10 mm. Single-mode power from smaller devices is restricted to 1.5 mW because of a non-optimal cavity shape.

Keyword
VCSELS; OXIDATION; POWER; INP
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8627 (URN)10.1049/iet-opt.2008.0037 (DOI)000265259100007 ()2-s2.0-63049130256 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825. Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel (20100825). Tidigare titel: Performance optimization of epitaxially regrown 1.3-μm VCSELsAvailable from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2014-06-12Bibliographically approved

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