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Hydrological and sediment yield modelling in Lake Tana Basin, Blue Nile Ethiopia
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Land and water resources degradation are the major problems on the Ethiopian highlands. Poor land use practices and improper management systems have played a significant role in causing high soil erosion rates, sediment transport and loss of agricultural nutrients. So far limited meas-ures have been taken to combat the problems. In this study a physically based watershed model, SWAT2005 was applied to the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia for modelling of the hydrology and sediment yield. The main objective of this study was to test the performance and feasibility of SWAT2005 model to examine the influence of topography, land use, soil and climatic condi-tion on streamflows, soil erosion and sediment yield. The model was calibrated and validated on four tributaries of Lake Tana as well as Anjeni watershed using SUFI-2, GLUE and ParaSol algo-rithms. SWAT and GIS based decision support system (MCE analysis) were also used to identify the most erosion prone areas in the Lake Tana Basin. Streamflows are more sensitive to the hy-drological response unites definition thresholds than subbasin discretization. Prediction of sedi-ment yield is highly sensitive to subbasin size and slope discretization. Baseflow is an important component of the total discharge within the study area that contributes more than the surface runoff. There is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows and sediment yields with higher values of coefficients of determination and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency. The an-nual average measured sediment yield in Anjeni watershed was 24.6 tonnes/ha. The annual aver-age simulated sediment yield was 27.8 and 29.5 tonnes/ha for calibration and validation periods, respectively. The SWAT model indicated that 18.5 % of the Lake Tana Basin is erosion potential areas. Whereas the MCE result indicated that 25.5 % of the basin are erosion potential areas. The calibrated model can be used for further analysis of the effect of climate and land use change as well as other different management scenarios on streamflows and soil erosion. The result of the study could help different stakeholders to plan and implement appropriate soil and water conser-vation strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , x, 34 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2042
Keyword [en]
SWAT, Lake Tana, Blue Nile, hydrological modelling, watershed modelling, MCE, SUFI-2, GLUE, ParaSol, streamflows, sediment yield, erosion, water balance, model calibration
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4796ISBN: 978-91-7415-026-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4796DiVA: diva2:14005
Presentation
V3, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Hydrological Modelling in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia using SWAT model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrological Modelling in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia using SWAT model
2008 (English)In: The Open Hydrology Journal, ISSN 1874-3781, Vol. 2, 49-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The SWAT2005 model was applied to the Lake Tana Basin for modeling of the hydrological water balance. The main objective of this study was to test the performance and feasibility of the SWAT model for prediction of streamflow in the Lake Tana Basin. The model was calibrated and validated on four tributaries of Lake Tana; Gumera, GilgelAbay, Megech and Ribb rivers using SUFI-2, GLUE and ParaSol algorithms. The sensitivity analysis of the model to subbasin delineation and HRU definition thresholds showed that the flow is more sensitive to the HRU definition thresholds than subbasin discretization effect. SUFI-2 and GLUE gave good result. All sources of uncertainties were captured by bracketing more than 60% of the observed river discharge. Baseflow (40% - 60%) is an important component of the total discharge within the study area that contributes more than the surface runoff. The calibrated model can be used for further analysis of the effect of climate and land use change as well as other different management scenarios on streamflow and soil erosion.

Keyword
SWAT, Lake Tana, hydrological modeling, watershed modeling, streamflow, SUFI-2, GLUE, ParaSol, water balance
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8628 (URN)10.2174/1874378100802010049 (DOI)
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
2. Sediment Yield Modelling from Anjeni Gauged Watershed, Ethiopia using SWAT2005 Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sediment Yield Modelling from Anjeni Gauged Watershed, Ethiopia using SWAT2005 Model
2008 (English)In: The Open Hydrology Journal, ISSN 1874-3781Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
SWAT, Soil Erosion, Sediment yield, Watershed Modelling, Hydrology, streamflow
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8629 (URN)
Note
QS 20120315Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2012-03-15Bibliographically approved
3. Streamflow Calibration and Validation of SWAT2005/ArcSWAT in Anjeni Gauged Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Streamflow Calibration and Validation of SWAT2005/ArcSWAT in Anjeni Gauged Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International SWAT Conference, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keyword
Calibration, Ethiopia, Hydrology, Modeling, Sensitivity, Stream flow, SWAT, Validation
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8630 (URN)
Conference
International SWAT Conference, July 02-06, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.
Note

QC 20101123

Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2012-08-23Bibliographically approved
4. Identification of Erosion Potential Areas in Lake Tana Catchment, Ethiopia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of Erosion Potential Areas in Lake Tana Catchment, Ethiopia
2008 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keyword
Erosion, GIS, Hydrologic modeling, Idrisi, Lake Tana, MCE, SWAT
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8631 (URN)
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved

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