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Selective Epitaxy of Indium Phosphide and Heteroepitaxy of Indium Phosphide on Silicon for Monolithic Integration
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

A densely and monolithically integrated photonic chip on indium phosphide is greatly in need for data transmission but the present day’s level of integration in InP is very low. Silicon enjoys a unique position among all the semiconductors in its level of integration. But it suffers from its slow signal transmission between the circuit boards and between the chips as it uses conventional electronic wire connections. This being the bottle-neck that hinders enhanced transmission speed, optical-interconnects in silicon have been the dream for several years. Suffering from its inherent deficient optical properties, silicon is not supposed to offer this feasibility in the near future. Hence, integration of direct bandgap materials, such as indium phosphide on silicon, is one of the viable alternatives. This thesis addresses these two issues, namely monolithic integration on indium phosphide and monolithic integration of indium phosphide on silicon. To this end, we use two techniques, namely selective epitaxy and heteroepitaxy by employing hydride vapor phase epitaxy method.

The first part deals with the exploitation of selective epitaxy for fabricating a discrete and an integrated chip based on InP. The former is a multi-quantum well buried heterostructure laser emitting at 1.55 µm that makes use of AlGaInAs and InGaAsP as the barrier and well, respectively. We demonstrate that even though it contains Al in the active region, semi-insulating InP:Fe can be regrown. The lasers demonstrate threshold as low as 115A/cm2/quantum well, an external quantum efficiency of 45% and a characteristic temperature of 78 K, all at 20 oC. Concerning the integrated device, we demonstrate complex and densely packed buried arrayed waveguide (AWG) structures found in advanced systems-on-the-chip for optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA). We present a case of an error-free 10 Gb/s encoding and decoding operation from an eight-channel AWGs with 180 GHz channel spacing. Selective epitaxial growth aspects specific to these complicated structures are also described and guidance on design implementation of these AWGs is given. Mass transport studies on these AWGs are also presented.

The second part deals with various studies on and relevant to epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of high quality InP on silicon. (i) ELOG often encounters cases where most part of the surface is covered by mask. From the modeling on large mask area effects, their impact on the transport and kinetic properties has been established. (ii) It is known that ELOG causes strain in the materials. From synchrotron X-ray measurements, strain is shown to have large effect on the mask edges and the underlying substrate. (iii) The combination of strain and the influence of image forces when reducing the opening dimensions in ELOG has been modeled. It is found to be very beneficial to reduce openings down to ~100 nm where effective filtering of dislocations is predicted to take place even in vicinity of the openings. We call it nano-ELOG. (iv) By combining the modeling results of nano-ELOG and of a pre-study of ELOG on pure InP, a novel net pattern design is invented and experimented for nano-ELOG of InP on Si. PL measurements together with transmission electron microscopy observations indicate beneficial effects of small size openings (200 nm) compared to 1000 nm openings. (v) ELOG of InP on silicon-on-insulators together with a multi-quantum well structure grown on it has been demonstrated for the first time. This is particularly interesting for integrating silicon/silicon dioxide waveguides with InP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , xii, 90 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:11
Keyword [en]
Semiconductor Physics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4801ISBN: 978-91-7178-991-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4801DiVA: diva2:14042
Public defence
2008-06-13, N2, School of Information and Communication Technology, Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28 A/D, Kista, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-09-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Demonstration of Spectral Phase O-CDMA Encoding and Decoding in Monolithically Integrated Arrayed-Waveguide-Grating-Based Encoder
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of Spectral Phase O-CDMA Encoding and Decoding in Monolithically Integrated Arrayed-Waveguide-Grating-Based Encoder
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2006 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 18, no 21-24, 2602-2604 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on successful spectral phase encoding and decoding operation in a pair of monolithically integrated InP encoder chips, each consisting of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) pair and an eight-channel electrooptic phase shifter array. The monolithic fabrication process includes anisotropic reactive ion etching and planarizing hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy lateral regrowth to realize buried hetero-waveguide structures in AWGs and phase shifters. Electrooptical modulation in the phase shifter arrays in the encoder chip achieved Walsh-code-based optical code-division multiple access (O-CDMA) encoding and decoding. The matched-code encoding-decoding operation resulted in error-free performance in the presence of an interferer, indicating good potential for O-CDMA network applications.

Keyword
arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), monolithic integration, optical code-division multiple access (O-CDMA), spectral encoder and decoder
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8654 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2006.887189 (DOI)000243173300135 ()2-s2.0-33845790159 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. The effect of barrier composition on the vertical carrier transport and lasing properties of 1.55-mu m multiple quantum-well structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of barrier composition on the vertical carrier transport and lasing properties of 1.55-mu m multiple quantum-well structures
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2006 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 42, no 7, 713-714 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the effect of barrier bandgap and composition on the optical performance of 1.55-mu m InGaAsP/In-GaAsP and InGaAsP/InGaAlAs multiple quantum-well structures and Fabry-Perot lasers is evaluated experimentally. Direct vertical carrier transport measurements were performed through strain-compensated multiple quantum-well (MQW) test structures using femto-second laser pulse excitation and time-resolved photoluminescence up-conversion method. MQW test structures were grown with different barrier composition (InGaAsP and InGaAlAs) and barrier bandgap (varied from lambda(g) = 1440 to 1260 nm) having different conduction band Delta E-c and valence band discontinuity Delta E-v, while keeping the same InGaAsP well composition for all the structures. The ambipolar carrier transport was found to be faster in the structures with lower valence band discontinuity Delta E-v. Regrown semi-insulating buried heterostructure Fabry-Perot (SIBH-FP) lasers were fabricated from similar QWs and their static light-current-voltage characteristics (including optical gain and chirp spectra below threshold) and thermal characteristics were measured. Lasers with InGaAlAs barrier showed improved high-temperature operation, higher optical gain, higher differential gain, and lower chirp, making them suitable candidates for high-bandwidth directly modulated uncooled laser applications.

Keyword
Carrier transport; Fabry-Perot laser; InGaAIAs; InGaAsP; Quantum well (QW); Time-resolved photo luminescence
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24236 (URN)10.1109/JQE.2006.876710 (DOI)000239404700013 ()2-s2.0-51849096527 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100827

Available from: 2010-08-27 Created: 2010-08-27 Last updated: 2017-06-08Bibliographically approved
3. Large mask area effects in selective area growth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large mask area effects in selective area growth
2006 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 289, no 1, 24-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we analyze for the first time selective area growth (SAG) of GaAs by MOVPE on dark field patterns, where the different masking features are dense and at the same time the openings are surrounded by very large mask area (larger than the openings) in all directions. The growth efficiency as a function of filling factors is analyzed using one- and two-dimensional filling factors. That the SAG efficiency cannot be greater than one is found to be true, if a two-dimensional filling factor is employed; this treatment involves three-dimensional transport of the growth rendering species. Finite element method has been used to derive the longitudinal thickness profile in the openings by considering the three-dimensional model. The derived longitudinal thickness profile is found to fit very well with the experimentally measured profile. The diffusion length of the growth rendering species is also extracted from the above profile. For comparison, light field patterns are also treated. Our analysis confirms many previous observations that SAG in the light field patterns can be sufficiently explained by the two-dimensional model.

Keyword
metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, selective epitaxy, gallium arsenide
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8656 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.10.130 (DOI)000236163000005 ()2-s2.0-33244497117 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Heteroepitaxy of InP on Silicon-on-Insulator for Optoelectronic Integration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heteroepitaxy of InP on Silicon-on-Insulator for Optoelectronic Integration
Show others...
2007 (English)In: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, Vol. 3, no 39, 23-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP was performed on patterned silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and compared with that on Si substrates in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy system. The InP was characterized by cathodoluminescence. No red shift of peak wavelength was detected for InP/SOI indicating a negligible thermal strain. Additional low energy peaks were found in some regions with a granular structure on the SOI template. A subsequent growth of an InGaAsP/InP MQW (multi quantum well) structure (λ∼1.5 μm) was grown on the SOI template and on a planar InP reference sample by metal-organic phase epitaxy. The MQW was characterized by room temperature photoluminescence. A red shift of 35 nm with respect to the reference sample was attributed to the selective-area effect causing thicker wells and/or an increased indium content. Although the PL intensity was weaker than that obtained for the reference, the FWHMs were comparable.

Keyword
area effect, Electrochemical Society (ECS), Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG), Granular structures, Hetero-epitaxy, Hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE), indium content, InGaAsP/InP, Low pressure (LP), Low-energy peaks, Metal organic (MO), Multi quantum well (MQW), on Patterned Silicon (GPS), Optoelectronic integrations, Peak wavelengths, Photoluminescence (PL) intensity, red shifting, Room Temperature Photoluminescence (RT-PL), Si(2 1 1) substrates, Silicon on insulator (SOI), Astrophysics, Blood vessel prostheses, Computer networks, Crystal growth, Doppler effect, Epitaxial growth, Light emission, Luminescence, Microsensors, Molecular beam epitaxy, Nonmetals, Optical sensors, Photonics, Semiconductor quantum wells, Silicon
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8657 (URN)10.1149/1.2818558 (DOI)2-s2.0-43249115741 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-09-02Bibliographically approved
5. Crystal Defects and Strain of Epitaxial InP Layers Laterally Overgrown on Si
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crystal Defects and Strain of Epitaxial InP Layers Laterally Overgrown on Si
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2006 (English)In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 6, no 5, 1096-1100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Defects in epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELO) InP layers are examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and synchrotron X-ray back-reflection and transmission topography. X-ray diffraction maps produce information about the overall crystal quality of the epitaxial layers in the InP ELO sample. The topographs show small angle boundaries, and the associated dislocations are located at the boundaries between the crystallites; allowing for their relative tilt, the maximum value for this is 0.06 degrees. No defects inside the crystallites can be seen in the topographs, except for a small bending of 0.04 degrees at most, of the ELO lattice planes. The section topographs show deformed X-ray interference fringes resulting from the large strain of the silicon lattice below the seeding areas.

Keyword
TOPOGRAPHY
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8658 (URN)10.1021/cg0503301 (DOI)000237420100011 ()2-s2.0-33744731759 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP in micro line and submicro mesh openings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP in micro line and submicro mesh openings
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2007 (English)In: 2007 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2007, 311-314 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Towards achieving a large area of InP on silicon, a study of ELOG of InP on InP has been undertaken on lines with different orientations and with openings that are 100 mu m long and 10 gm wide. This knowledge has been transposed on sub-micro mesh structures. By this method we have obtained 2 gm thick InP on a mesh patterned InP. The layer exhibits room temperature photoluminescence (PL) with a full width half maximum of 24 nm. We propose that this intensity can be increased if nano-sized openings are used.

Series
Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, ISSN 1092-8669
Keyword
Epitaxial growth, Photoluminescence, Silicon, Temperature measurement, Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, Submicro mesh structures
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8659 (URN)10.1109/ICIPRM.2007.381186 (DOI)000248523100082 ()2-s2.0-34748886143 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-09-02Bibliographically approved
7. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP on Si from nano-openings: Theoretical and experemintal indication for defect filtering throughout the grown layer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP on Si from nano-openings: Theoretical and experemintal indication for defect filtering throughout the grown layer
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 104, no 9, 093112-1-093112-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a model for the filtration of dislocations inside the seed window in epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). We found that, when the additive effects of image and gliding forces exceed the defect line tension force, filtering can occur even in the openings. The model is applied to ELO of InP on Si where the opening size and the thermal stress arising due to the mask and the grown material are taken into account and analyzed. Further, we have also designed the mask patterns in net structures, where the tilting angles of the openings in the nets are chosen in order to take advantage of the filtering in the openings more effectively, and to minimize new defects due to coalescence in the ELO. Photoluminescence intensities of ELO InP on Si and on InP are compared and found to be in qualitative agreement with the model.

Keyword
DISLOCATION DENSITY REDUCTION, PHASE EPITAXY, SUBSTRATE, GAAS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8660 (URN)10.1063/1.2977754 (DOI)000260941700013 ()2-s2.0-56349123893 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100902. Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20100902).Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. Time resolved photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy studies on nano InP grown on silicon by nano epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time resolved photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy studies on nano InP grown on silicon by nano epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8661 (URN)
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-09-02Bibliographically approved

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