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And Then They Lived Sustainably Ever After?: Experiences from Rural Electrification in Tanzania, Zambia and Kenya
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Accelerating the introduction of basic, clean energy services is seen as a key strategy for promoting sustainable development in rural areas. Still, many people worldwide lack access to modern energy such as electricity, and Africa lags behind other developing regions of the world. Support to rural electrification is therefore given high priority by the national governments and donor organisations.

There is a trend to encourage the involvement of other actors than national utilities for implementation of rural electrification. At the same time, it is required that the activities shall contribute to sustainable development.

The objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to reach increased knowledge on the impact from organisational factors on project sustainability, and to examine whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. A key activity of the research work has been to improve and develop the present methodologies used for evaluations, as to attain a more functional in-field evaluation method.

The thesis presents findings from seven rural electrification cases in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

In addition, a literature survey shows that among stakeholders there are a number of “concepts-taken-for-granted” as regards to rural electrification. These are not supported by the findings from the seven cases. The observed deviations between expectations and realities can obstruct the development as decision-makers may have unrealistic expectations when planning for new electrification activities. Instead, activities have to be implemented with the empirical reality in mind. By doing so the ambiguities, complexities and all the paradoxes of rural electrification can hopefully be better managed.

The study has been funded by The Swedish International Development Agency, Department for Research Cooperation (SAREC), and Ångpanneföreningen’s Foundation for Research and Development (ÅFORSK).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , XII, 63 p.
Series
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2008:5
Keyword [en]
Rural Electrification, Sustainable Development, Indicators, Evaluations, Interdisciplinary, Africa
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4804ISBN: 978-91-7415-006-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4804DiVA: diva2:14059
Public defence
2008-06-13, L1, Lantmäterihuset, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100812Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 33, no 10, 1299-1307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing Countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the Supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

Keyword
rural electrification; co-operatives; Tanzania
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8672 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2003.12.006 (DOI)000228206800007 ()2-s2.0-11244249793 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100812Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-08-12Bibliographically approved
2. Simple organisation analysis as a tool for raised awareness of interdisciplinary perspectives on rural electrification: Case studies from Zambia and Tanzania
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple organisation analysis as a tool for raised awareness of interdisciplinary perspectives on rural electrification: Case studies from Zambia and Tanzania
2004 (English)In: Sida seminar on Rural Energy Delivery Mechanisms: Stockholm, Sweden, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most current power sector reforms in Africa today consist of deregulation, privatisation and the use of new institutional arrangements as a complement to the electricity projects implemented by the state owned utilities. As the variety of institutional models of organisations increase there is also a growingneed to analyse the specific characteristics of the different organisational forms.

There is no single most appropriate organisation for electricity services in rural areas. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide arguments for, and demonstrate benefits of, the use of SWOT-analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) as a tool for obtaining a deeper understanding of the situation for organisations involved in rural electricity services. Through the use of SWOT-analysis as a simple model, discussions have been held during 2002-2003 with five organisations engaged in electricity services in rural areas of Zambia and Tanzania. The result from the study suggest that SWOT-analysis is a useful tool for organisations to obtain a good overall picture of their situation and that some initial observations can be made regards similarities and differences of the studied organisations, for example on transparency, staff and management capacity and economic issues.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24074 (URN)
Note
QC 20100812Available from: 2010-08-12 Created: 2010-08-12 Last updated: 2010-08-12Bibliographically approved
3. New Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: Myth or Reality?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: Myth or Reality?
2004 (English)In: Hidroenergia 2004: International Conference & Exhibition on Small Hydropower Falkenberg,Sweden, June 2004, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Different forms of power sector reforms are currently ongoing or have been initiated in over 20 African countries, opening up possibilities for new actors. To be introduced and established on new markets, a thorough market knowledge are however necessary. Many markets in African countries are also characterised by a low purchasing power and imperfect infrastructure. Nevertheless, on a medium-term basis Swedish and other European small hydro companies should be capable of taking new market shares, mainly through utilisation of their technical and managerial knowledge and possibilities to cooperate through joint trade organisations and development organisations. These issues have been studied in a project financed by Ångpanneföreningen’s Foundation for Research and Development (ÅFORSK) and Sida’s Department for Research Cooperation (SAREC).

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24075 (URN)
Note
QC 20100812Available from: 2010-08-12 Created: 2010-08-12 Last updated: 2010-08-12Bibliographically approved
4. Village electrification technologies: an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Village electrification technologies: an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study
2005 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 33, no 10, 1287-1298 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example.

In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact.

The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO, emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service.

Keyword
rural electrification; technologies; Tanzania
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8673 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2003.12.005 (DOI)000228206800006 ()2-s2.0-11244322015 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100812Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-08-12Bibliographically approved
5. Indicators for assessment of rural electrification: an approach for the comparison of apples and pears
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators for assessment of rural electrification: an approach for the comparison of apples and pears
2008 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 36, no 7, 2665-2673 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for the assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability.

An issue of growing importance is whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility.

This paper presents a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The paper presents the indicators and gives a detailed example of the procedure to calculate an indicator based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies.

It is suggested that this interdisciplinary approach will lead to an improved basis for evaluation of projects than previous, more limited approaches. Projects promoted on the basis of information only about prioritised dimensions of sustainability, such as environment, may fail as a result of weaknesses in other dimensions. The proposed method may reduce this risk.

Keyword
sustainability indicators; evaluation; rural electrification
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8674 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.03.023 (DOI)000257725900036 ()2-s2.0-44649131913 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100812. Uppdaterad från in press till published (20100812).Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved
6. And then they lived sustainably ever after?: Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>And then they lived sustainably ever after?: Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators
2008 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 36, no 7, 2674-2684 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue.

This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators.

The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability.

The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

Keyword
sustainability indicators; evaluation; rural electrification
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8675 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.03.022 (DOI)000257725900037 ()2-s2.0-44649117078 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100812. Uppdaterad från in press till published (20100812).Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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