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Dendritically ordered nano-particles in a micro-porous structure for enhanced boiling
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9902-2087
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5678-5298
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2006 (English)In: Proceedings of 13th International Heat Transfer Conference, NAN-07, 2006, Vol. NAN-07Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Presented research is an experimental study of the pool boiling performance of copper surfaces enhanced with a newly developed structure. The enhanced surfaces were fabricated with an electrodeposition method where metallic nano-particles are formed and dendritically connected into an ordered micro-porous structure. To further alter the grain size of the dendritic branches, some surfaces underwent an annealing treatment. The tests were conducted with the test objects horizontally oriented and submerged in a refrigerant: R134A, at saturated conditions and at an absolute pressure of 4 bar. The heat flux varied between 0.1 and 10 W/cm2. The boiling performance of the enhanced surfaces was found to be dependent on controllable surface characteristics such as thickness of the structure and the interconnectivity of the grains in the dendritic branches. Temperature differences less than 0.3 °C and 1.5 °C at heat fluxes of 1 and 10 W/cm2 respectively have been recorded, corresponding to heat transfer coefficients up to 7.6 Wcm-2K-1. The micro-porous structure has been shown to facilitate high performance boiling, which is attributed to its high porosity (∼94%), a dendritically formed and exceptionally large surface area, and to a high density of well suited vapor escape channels (50 – 470 per mm2).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. NAN-07
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8691ISBN: 1-56700-225-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8691DiVA: diva2:14077
Note
QC 20100924Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2011-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

World energy crisis has triggered more attention to energy saving and energy conversion systems with high efficiency. There is a growing awareness that nanoscience and nanotechnology can have a profound impact on energy generation, conversion, and recovery. Nanotechnology-based solutions are being developed for a wide range of energy problems such as, solar electricity, hydrogen generation and storage, batteries, fuel cells, heat pumps and thermoelectrics. This thesis deals with the design and fabrication of novel functional materials/architectures for energy-related applications. The study includes two parts: Nanostructured thermoelectric (TE) materials for energy conversion and nanostructured metallic surfaces for energy heat transfer.

In the first part, the focus is given to the fabrication of novel nanostructured TE materials and architectures. TE materials are very important functional materials that can convert heat to electrical energy and vice versa. Recently, nanostructuring TE materials showed very promising potential to improve their TE figure of merit which opens a new venue for the TE world. As a result, some advanced nanostructured TE architectures are proposed as the state-of-the-art TE materials/structures. Among these advanced TE architectures, bismuth telluride nanowires/thick films and skutterudite nanocomposites with nanoinclusions have been successfully fabricated and some of their advantageous TE performance has been demonstrated. For example, an improvement of 11% on the figure of merit, ZT, was achieved in the CoSb3 nanocomposite with 5 mole% ZrO2 as nanoinclusion. Comprehensive physico-chemical characterization techniques have been used for the synthesized TE materials. The potential-Seebeck microprobe, 4-point probe and laser flash apparatus have been used for the measurement of TE parameters on the TE materials.

In the second part of the thesis, we developed a nanostructured macro-porous (NMp) surface for enhancing heat transfer in boiling process. Enhanced surfaces for boiling improve the energy efficiency of heat pumping equipment such as air conditioners, refrigerators, etc. Conventional techniques currently used for fabricating enhanced surfaces are often based on the use of complicated mechanical machine tools and require a large consumption of materials and give only limited enhancement of the boiling heat transfer. In this thesis, we present a new approach to fabricate enhanced surfaces by using electrodeposition under specific conditions forming in-situ dynamic gas bubble templates. As a result, the NMp metallic surface layer comprising of dendritically ordered copper branches is obtained. Since the structure is formed during the evolution of the dynamic bubbles, it is ideal for the bubble generation applications such as boiling. The efficiency of the NMp surfaces for boiling heat transfer was evaluated in pool boiling experiments. At the heat flux of 1 W/cm2, the heat transfer coefficient for the NMp surface is found to be more than 17 times higher than the reference surface. It's estimated that such an effective boiling surface would improve the energy efficiency of many heat pumping machines with 10 - 30 %. The extraordinary enhancement of boiling performance is explained by the structure characteristics, which assist in enhancing nucleation of the gas bubbles, subsequent coalescence, and facilitated departure from the surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 72 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:12
Keyword
Materials Chemistry
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4807 (URN)978-91-7178-994-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-13, Sal N1, KTH-Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28 A/D, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100924Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2010-09-24Bibliographically approved
2. Engineering nanomaterials with enhanced functionality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering nanomaterials with enhanced functionality
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the engineering of novel nanomaterials, particularly nanocomposites and nanostructured surfaces with enhanced functionalities. The study includes two parts; in the first part, an in situ sol-gel polymerization approach is used for the synthesis of polymer-inorganic hybrid material and its exceptional transparent UV-shielding effect has been investigated. In the second part, electrodeposition process has been adapted to engineer surfaces and the boiling performance of the fabricated nanostructured surfaces is evaluated.

In the first part of the work, polymer-inorganic hybrid materials composed of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and zinc compounds were prepared by in situ sol-gel transition polymerization of zinc complex in PMMA matrix. The immiscibility of heterophase of solid organic and inorganic constituents was significantly resolved by an in situ sol-gel transition polymerization of ZnO nanofillers within PMMA in the presence of dual functional agent, monoethanolamine, which provided strong secondary interfacial interactions for both complexing and crosslinking of constituents.

In the second part of the work, nanoengineering on the surface of copper plates has been performed in order to enhance the boiling heat transfer coefficient. Micro-porous surfaces with dendritic network of copper nanoparticles have been obtained by electrodeposition with dynamic templates. To further alter the grain size of the dendritic branches, the nanostructured surfaces underwent a high temperature annealing treatment.

Comprehensive characterization methods of the polymer-inorganic hybrid materials and nanoengineered surfaces have been undertaken. XRD, 1H NMR, FT-IR, TGA, DSC, UV-Vis, ED, SEM, TEM and HRTEM have been used for basic physical properties. Pool boiling tests were performed to evaluate the boiling performance of the electrodeposited nanostructured micro-porous structures.

The homogeneous PZHM exhibited enhanced UV-shielding effects in the entire UV range even at very low ZnO content of 0.02 wt%. Moreover, the relationship between band gap and particle size of incorporated ZnO by sol-gel process was in good agreement with the results calculated from the effective mass model between bandgap and particle size. The fabricated enhanced surface has shown an excellent performance in nucleate boiling. At heat flux of 1 W/cm2, the heat transfer coefficient is enhanced over 15 times compared to a plain reference surface. A model has been presented to explain the enhancement based on the structure characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. viii, 44 p.
Keyword
PMMA-ZnO, nanocomposite, hybrid material, in situ sol-gel polymerization, quantum dots, UV-shielding, Nanostructured surface, Pool boiling, Heat transfer coefficient, Bubble nucleation, Enhanced boiling, dendritic branch, Electrodeposition, Nanoengineering
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3906 (URN)91-7178-338-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-05-12, K408, B, Brinellvagen 23, 4th floor, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101118Available from: 2006-09-29 Created: 2006-06-15 Last updated: 2010-11-18Bibliographically approved
3. Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer on a Dendritic and Micro-Porous Copper Structure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer on a Dendritic and Micro-Porous Copper Structure
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A novel surface structure comprising dendritically ordered nano-particles of copper was developed during the duration of this thesis research project. A high current density electrodeposition process, where hydrogen bubbles functioned as a dynamic mask for the materials deposition, was used as a basic fabrication method. A post processing annealing treatment was further developed to stabilize and enhance the mechanical stability of the structure.

The structure was studied quite extensively in various pool boiling experiments in refrigerants; R134a and FC-72. Different parameters were investigated, such as; thickness of the porous layer, presence of vapor escape channels, annealed or non-annealed structure. Some of the tests were filmed with a high speed camera, from which visual observation were made as well as quantitative bubble data extracted. The overall heat transfer coefficient in R134a was enhanced by about an order of magnitude compared to a plain reference surface and bubble image data suggests that both single- and two-phase heat transfer mechanisms were important to the enhancement.

A quantitative and semi-empirical boiling model was presented where the main two-phase heat transfer mechanism inside the porous structure was assumed to be; micro-layer evaporation formed by an oscillating vapor-liquid meniscus front with low resistance vapor transport through escape channels. Laminar liquid motion induced by the oscillating vapor front was suggested as the primary single-phase heat transfer mechanism.

The structure was applied to a standard plate heat exchanger evaporator with varying hydraulic diameter in the refrigerant channel. Again, a 10 times improved heat transfer coefficient in the refrigerant channel was recorded, resulting in an improvement of the overall heat transfer coefficient with over 100%. A superposition model was used to evaluate the results and it was found that for the enhanced boiling structure, variations of the hydraulic diameter caused a change in the nucleate boiling mechanism, which accounted for the largest effect on the heat transfer performance. For the standard heat exchanger, it was mostly the convective boiling mechanism that was affected by the change in hydraulic diameter.

The structure was also applied to the evaporator surface in a two-phase thermosyphon with R134a as working fluid. The nucleate boiling mechanism was found to be enhanced with about 4 times and high speed videos of the enhanced evaporator reveal an isolated bubble flow regime, similar to that of smooth channels with larger hydraulic diameters. The number and frequency of the produced bubbles were significantly higher for the enhanced surface compared to that of the plain evaporator. This enhanced turbulence and continuous boiling on the porous structure resulted in decreased oscillations in the thermosyphon for the entire range of heat fluxes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 75 p.
Series
Trita-REFR, ISSN 1102-0245 ; 11:02
Keyword
enhanced boiling; R134a; FC-72; flow boiling; heat transfer; high speed visualization; instability; micro-channels; micro-structured; nano- and micro-technology; nano- and micro-porous structured surfaces; plate heat exchanger; pool boiling; porous media; thermosyphon; two-phase heat transfer
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47538 (URN)978-91-7501-163-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-25, E1, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111111Available from: 2011-11-11 Created: 2011-11-10 Last updated: 2011-11-11Bibliographically approved

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