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On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Chemical reactions transfer contaminants from the aqueous to the solid phase. Phosphorus is removed from domestic wastewater by sorption to filter materials, which can then be recycled to agriculture as fertilisers and soil amendments. This thesis presents long-term column and field-scale studies of nine filter materials, particularly the novel product Polonite®. Phosphorus, nitro-gen and metals were removed by the mineral-based materials to varying degrees. Polonite and Nordkalk Filtra P demonstrated the largest phosphorus removal capacity, maintaining a PO4-P removal efficiency of >95%. Analysis of filter bed layers in columns with downward wastewater flow, showed that phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen content was vertically distributed, with de-creasing values from surface to base layer. Polonite and Filtra P accumulated 1.9-19 g P kg-1. Nitrogen in wastewater was scarcely removed by the alkaline filter materials, but transformation from NH4-N to NO3-N was >90%. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) revealed that after wastewater treatment, slags and Polonite could increase plant production. Batch experi-ments and ATR-FTIR investigations indicated that amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the materials, so some of the accumulated PO4-P was readily available to plants. Low heavy metal contents occurred in the materials, showing that they can be applied as soil amend-ments in agriculture without contamination risks. A full-scale treatment system using Polonite as filter material showed an average PO4-P removal efficiency of 89% for a 92-week period, indicat-ing the robustness of the filter bed technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , x, 38 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1043
Keyword [en]
alkaline materials, heavy metals, mechanisms, nutrient removal, sorption, speciation modelling
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4811ISBN: 978-91-7415-024-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4811DiVA: diva2:14097
Public defence
2008-06-16, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100907Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2010-09-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An evaluation of reactive filter media for treating landfill leachate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of reactive filter media for treating landfill leachate
2005 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 61, no 7, 933-940 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 A laboratory bench-scale column study was conducted to evaluate permeable reactive filter materials as a new method for removal of heavy metals and inorganic nitrogen from landfill leachate. Mixtures of sand and peat, blast-furnace slag (BFS) and peat, and Polonite (R) and peat were tested by loading columns with leachate collected from a pond at Tvetaverket Landfill, Sweden. Sand, peat and Polonite (R) represent natural materials. BFS is a by-product from steel-works. The metal treatment efficiencies of the media were assessed and Polonite (R) was found to perform best, where Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations were removed by 99%, 93%, 86% and 67%, respectively. This material was also able to reduce inorganic N by 18%. The BFS showed good removal efficiency for Cu (66%), Zn (62%), Ni (19%) and Mo (16%). The sand-peat mixture did not demonstrate a promising removal capacity for any of the elements studied with the exception of Cu (25%). The removal of different elements was suggested to be a combination of several factors, i.e. precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. Prior to full-scale application of reactive filters at a landfill site, matrix selection, filter design and operational procedures must be developed.

Keyword
Column experiment, Filter media, Landfill leachate, Metal removal, Sorption
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8700 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.03.036 (DOI)000233380900004 ()2-s2.0-27644525278 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100827Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Phosphorus retention in filter materials for wastewater treatment and its subsequent suitability for plant production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus retention in filter materials for wastewater treatment and its subsequent suitability for plant production
2006 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 97, no 7, 914-921 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Constructed sand filter beds are advantageous for the treatment of wastewater in areas with a low population density. Phosphorus-sorbing materials with additional beneficial characteristics may be used instead of sand. This study aimed at determining and comparing phosphorus (P) retention capacities of amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slags, limestone, opoka, Polonite (R) and sand, for filtering domestic wastewater through columns over a period of 67 weeks. The P-enriched filter materials were subsequently tested for their fertilizer effectiveness in a pot experiment where barley was cultivated. Polonite (R), i.e. calcinated bedrock opoka, was most effective in removing P. This Occurred at a relatively high hydraulic conductivity that reduced the risk of clogging. Barley grown in two types of slag, with a grain size of 0.25-4, mm. was most effective in dry matter production followed by Polonite (R). Fine-grained slags and Polonite (R) were suggested its most suited of the investigated materials to recycle P back to agriculture.

Keyword
barley, blast furnace slag, fertiliser, Polonite (R), phosphorus recycling
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8701 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2005.04.026 (DOI)000236495700005 ()2-s2.0-31344448620 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100907Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Phosphate removal by mineral-based sorbents used in filters for small-scale wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphate removal by mineral-based sorbents used in filters for small-scale wastewater treatment
2008 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, no 1-2, 189-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mineral-based sorbents Filtra P, Polonite (R), natural wollastonite and water-cooled blast furnace slag (WCBFS) were studied in terms of their PO4 removal performance. Results from a long-term column experiment showed that both Filtra P and Polonite (R) removed > 95% of PO4 from the applied synthetic solution, and that the used filter materials had accumulated several (1.9-19) g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus was removed also by natural wollastonite and WCBFS, but these materials were less efficient. Batch experiments on the used materials showed that the solubility PO4 was considerably larger than the one expected for crystalline Ca phosphates such as hydroxyapatite, and results from investigations with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on the Filtra P material showed that the formed P phase was not crystalline. These evidence suggest that a soluble amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the mineral-based sorbents; the apparent solubility constant on dissolution was estimated to log K-s = -27.94 ( 0.31) at 21 degrees C. However, since only up to 18% of the accumulated PO4 was readily dissolved in the experiments, it cannot be excluded that part of the phosphorus had crystallized to slightly less soluble phases. In conclusion, Filtra P and Polonite are two promising mineral-based sorbents for phosphorus removal, and at least part of the accumulated phosphorus is present in a soluble form, readily available to plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2008
Keyword
waste water, phosphorus, filter, filtra P, polonite, blast furnace, slag, wollastonite, phosphorus removal, calcium phosphates, plant-availability, slag, crystallization, recovery, spectroscopy, absorption, mechanisms, speciation
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17311 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2007.06.058 (DOI)000253045900018 ()2-s2.0-37349003901 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100525

Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Transformation and removal of nitrogen in reactive bed filter materials designed for on-site wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transformation and removal of nitrogen in reactive bed filter materials designed for on-site wastewater treatment
2008 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 34, no 3, 207-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) should be removed and recycled from wastewater in order to reduce the nutrient load to recipient waters, avoid contamination of groundwater and conserve resources. Nitrogen removal and transformation were studied in domestic wastewater percolating in unsaturated conditions through 0.5 m long columns containing potential filter materials. Six materials (three types of slag, limestone, opoka, Polonite(R) and sand) were compared at a design loading rate of 85 L m(-2) d(-1) during 67 weeks. All materials transformed ammonium efficiently to nitrate (>98%). Apparent removal of inorganic N was shown only by the coarsest slag and by Polonite(R), possibly due to losses through volatilisation. All other filter materials leached nitrate at the column effluent. Total N content was highest in the surface layer of the column material, with decreasing values with depth. In contrast, carbon

Keyword
Ammonium removal, Blast furnace slag, Column experiment, Nitrification, Polonite (R), flow constructed wetlands, phosphorus retention, ammonium removal, ion-exchange, sand-filters, subsurface flow, shell sand, denitrification, performance, effluent
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18027 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.08.006 (DOI)000261456900002 ()2-s2.0-54049099102 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Metal removal by bed filter materials used in domestic wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal removal by bed filter materials used in domestic wastewater treatment
2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 166, no 2-3, 734-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Used materials, which are enriched with phosphorus, can be used as a fertiliser or soil amendment. However the materials can also be enriched with metals from the wastewater. Six materials (opoka, sand, Polonite (R), limestone, two types of blast furnace slag) exposed to long-term wastewater loading in columns and in a compact filter well filled with Polonite were investigated for metal removal and accumulation. Wastewater applied to the columns had low heavy metal concentrations in the order Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cr. All columns were able to remove 53%-83% of Zn except those filled with sand. Polonite demonstrated a high removal capacity of Mn (>98%), while only the slag materials were able to remove Ni. All materials showed increased Cu, Cr(III). Mn. Pb and Zn content after filtration. Speciation calculations showed that high concentrations of dissolved organic matter might have prevented efficient metal removal, particularly in the case of Cu. The low content of toxic heavy metals in the studied filter materials studied would probably not restrict their use as a fertiliser or soil amendment.

Keyword
Column experiment, Contamination, Blast furnace slag, Soil amendment, Polonite (R), blast-furnace slag, phosphorus retention, heavy-metals, sorption, ions, zinc, fertilizer, sorbents, wetlands, calcite
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18512 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.127 (DOI)000266947000021 ()2-s2.0-67349231917 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. Phosphorus removal by Polonite from wastewater: Column experiments and a compact bed filter trial
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus removal by Polonite from wastewater: Column experiments and a compact bed filter trial
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Keyword
effluent standard, filter material, on-site treatment, phosphorus breakthrough, sorption
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8705 (URN)
Note
QC 20100907Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2010-09-07Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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Output format
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  • asciidoc
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