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On Admission Control for IP Networks Based on Probing
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current Internet design is based on a best-effort service, which combines high utilization of network resources with architectural simplicity. As a consequence of this design, the Internet is unable to provide guaranteed or predictable quality of service (QoS) to real-time services that have constraints on end-to-end delay, delay jitter and packet loss.

To add QoS capabilities to the present Internet, the new functions need to be simple to implement, while allowing high network utilization. In recent years, different methods have been investigated to provide the required QoS. Most of these methods include some form of admission control so that new flows are only admitted to the network if the admission does not decrease the quality of connections that are already in progress below some defined level. To achieve the required simplicity a new family of admission control methods, called end-to-end measurement-based admission control moves the admission decision to the edges of the network.

This thesis presents a set of methods for admission control based on measurements of packet loss. The thesis studies how to deploy admission control in an incremental way: First, admission control is included in the audiovisual real-time applications, without any support from the network. Second, admission control is enabled at the transport layer to differentiate between elastic and inelastic flows, by embedding the probing mechanism in UDP and using the inherent congestion control of TCP. Finally, admission control is deployed at the network layer by providing differentiated scheduling in the network for probe and data packets, which then allows the operator to control the blocking probability for the inelastic flows and the average throughput for the elastic flows.

The thesis offers a description of the incremental steps to provide QoS on a DiffServ-based Internet. It analyzes the proposed schemes and provides extensive figures of performance based on simulations and on real implementations. It also shows how the admission control can be used in multicast sessions by making the admission decision at the receiver.

The thesis provides as well two different mathematical analyses of the network layer admission control, which enable operators to obtain initial configuration parameters for the admission decision, like queue sizes, based on the forecasted or measured traffic volume.

The thesis ends by considering a new method for overload control in WLAN cells, closely based on the ideas for admission control presented in the rest of the articles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , v, 37 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2008:026
Keyword [en]
Admission control; QoS; IP networks
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4818ISBN: 978-91-7415-012-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4818DiVA: diva2:14126
Public defence
2008-06-13, KTH, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Quality of Service and the End-to-End argument
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of Service and the End-to-End argument
2007 (English)In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 21, no 6, 16-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Audio-visual services are now commonly used on the Internet. Many of them are based on batch downloading of contents for later replay. Real-time interactive and streaming services are now rapidly becoming popular. These services would benefit from quality of service if it were widely provided. The purpose of this article is to show how QoS solutions may be introduced incrementally. Quality is obtained by means of a probe-based admission control that can be exerted outside the network. The introduction of QoS starts from self-admission control in the application layer, followed by transport layer service differentiation. These two steps do not require any change to the network. If motivated, scheduling for service class separation in the network may be added. We show by proof of concept how QoS may be provided in agreement with the end-to-end argument. The three steps of our proposal are compared and discussed with respect to the possibility of deployment.

Keyword
Access control; Internet; Internet protocols; Scheduling algorithms; Voice/data communication systems; Audio-visual services; End-to-end argument; Self-admission control
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8718 (URN)10.1109/MNET.2007.4395106 (DOI)000251032100003 ()2-s2.0-36849065345 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Self-Admission Control for IP Telephony using Early Quality Estimation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Admission Control for IP Telephony using Early Quality Estimation
2004 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 3042, 381-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

If quality of service could be provided at the transport or the application layer, then it might be deployed simply by software upgrades, instead of requiring a complete upgrade of the network infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a self-admission control scheme that does not require any network support or external monitoring schemes. We apply the admission control scheme to IP telephony as it is an important application benefiting from admission control. We predict the quality of the call by observing the packet loss over a short initial period using an in-band probing mechanism. The quality prediction is then used by the application to continue or to abort the call. Using over 9500 global IP telephony measurements, we show that it is possible to accurately predict the quality of a call. Early rejection of sessions has the advantage of saving valuable network resources plus not disturbing the on-going calls.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8719 (URN)10.1007/978-3-540-24693-0_32 (DOI)000221521000032 ()2-s2.0-34250684637 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826. Ingår i Proc. of 3rd International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference.Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Single-Service Quality Differentiation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-Service Quality Differentiation
2004 (English)In: 2004 Twelfth IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service, IWQoS 2004: Montreal, Ont.; 7 June 2004 through 9 June 2004, 2004, 265-272 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a scheme for quality of service differentiation for single-service networks that is based on the use of two separate forms of traffic control at the transport layer: Streams are controlled by means of probe-based admission control and elastic flows are controlled by TCP. The controls allow separation of traffic into two distinct service classes. The stream class is designed to provide a consistent quality for interactive audiovisual communication, as favored by human perception. It is responsive to load variations as an aggregate through blocking of sessions, while TCP is responsive on the flow level. Streams can be isolated against disturbances from probes and TCP flows by means of error-control coding. We show that the two traffic controls can coexist without starvation, and the proposed scheme might thus provide a first step towards differentiated services end-to-end.

Keyword
Approximation theory; Computer networks; Data communication systems; Data reduction; Decision making; Error analysis; Error correction; Multiplexing; Network protocols; Probability; Traffic control; Error control coding; Service-quality differentiation; Stream-data transfers; TCP (transmission control protocol)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8137 (URN)10.1109/IWQOS.2004.1309392 (DOI)000222964800029 ()2-s2.0-4544385703 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2005-10-26 Created: 2005-10-26 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
4. Edge-based Differentiated Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Edge-based Differentiated Services
2005 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 3552, 259-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Network quality of service is traditionally thought to be provided by a combination of scheduling in the network nodes to enforce a capacity sharing policy and traffic controls to prevent congestion that could annihilate that policy. The work presented herein is instead based on an end-to-end argument: A capacity sharing policy is enforced by traffic controls in the hosts at the edges of the network, without any scheduling support in the network. Our proposal is to add a feed-forward control at the transport layer to provide a service that is better suited to conversational and streaming applications than the batch-oriented transfer mode provided by TCP. The paper presents the control and its evaluation: We compare the sharing of capacity between traffic classes and study the loss rate seen by admitted streams. The outcome is that the new control adds a distinctly different service to the service offered by TCP for the Internet.

Keyword
Congestion control (communication); Network protocols; Public policy; Telecommunication traffic; Differentiated services; End-to-end argument
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8138 (URN)000230383200021 ()2-s2.0-26444479632 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826. Ingår i Proc. of 13th International Workshop on Qualityof Service - IWQoS 2005.Available from: 2005-10-26 Created: 2005-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. PBAC: Probe-Based Admission Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PBAC: Probe-Based Admission Control
2001 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 2156, 97-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different end-to-end measurement based admission control (MBAC) schemes have recently been proposed to support quality of service for real-time data. All these designs share the idea of decentralizing the admission decision by requiring each end host or gateway to probe the network before sending data. This probing provides certain measurements on the network status that can be used to accept or reject the incoming flow. In this paper, we study a probing procedure to perform an admission decision for a controlled load service (CLS). The admission control offers a reliable upper bound on the packet loss for the new session even with short probing phase durations (e.g. half a second). Our probing mechanism only requires the routers to differentiate between two classes of packets: high priority data and low priority probes. Some simulation results on the performance of the scheme are presented.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8722 (URN)10.1007/3-540-45412-8_8 (DOI)
Note
QC 20100826. Ingår i Proc. of the 2nd COST 263 International Workshop.Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Probe-Based Admission Control for Multicast
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probe-Based Admission Control for Multicast
2002 (English)In: Tenth IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service, 2002, 2002, 99-105 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

End-to-end measurement based admission controls (MBAC) have recently been proposed to support quality of service for real-time transfer of data. All these designs share the idea of decentralizing the admission decision by requiring each end host to probe the network before the transmission. These schemes are solely targeted at unicast communications, while multicast data has not yet been addressed. In this paper we study a probing procedure to perform admission decisions for multicast senders and receivers. The admission control offers a reliable upper bound on the packet loss for the multicast session even with short probe phase durations (e.g. half a second). Our probing mechanism only requires the routers to differentiate between two classes of packets: high priority data and low priority probes. Simulation results of the performance of the procedure are presented and evaluated.

Series
International Workshop on Quality of Service, ISSN 1548-615X
Keyword
multicast; quality of service; admission control; DiffServ
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8723 (URN)10.1109/IWQoS.2002.1006578 (DOI)000176642700010 ()0-7803-7426-6 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
7. Lightweight Monitoring of Edge-Based Admission Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightweight Monitoring of Edge-Based Admission Control
2006 (English)In: IEEE 2006 International Zurich Seminar on Digital Communications: Zurich: 22 February 2006 through 24 February 2006, 2006, 50-53 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a software monitor that can control and police end-to-end admission control schemes. The monitor has low hardware requirements and it is well suited to be implemented in access routers or firewalls. We present a prototype implemented with commodity hardware and open source software which performs protocol compliance monitoring and can log and filter out single misbehaving flows. The protocol monitor can easily be extended to police other end to end protocols such as TCP, ensuring end-to-end QoS service level agreements with end users.

Keyword
Electronic document identification systems; Network protocols; Quality of service; Routers; Edge based admission control; Open source softwares; Protocol compliance monitoring; Protocol monitors
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8724 (URN)10.1109/IZS.2006.1649076 (DOI)000238975300011 ()2-s2.0-33845581057 (Scopus ID)1-4244-0092-9 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
8. Probe-based Admission Control for a Differentiated-Services Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probe-based Admission Control for a Differentiated-Services Internet
2007 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 51, no 13, 3902-3918 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

End-point admission control solutions have been proposed to meet quality requirements of audio-visual applications with little support from routers. These proposals decentralize the admission decision by requiring each host or access gateway to probe the network before sending data. In this paper we describe a probe-based admission control scheme that offers a reliable upper bound on packet loss, as well as small end-to-end delay and delay jitter. The admission control supports host mobility and multicast communications without adding any complexity to the network nodes. We present a mathematical analysis which relates system performance to design parameters and which can be used as a dimensioning aid for the system. Finally, we describe performance results from an experimental prototype as well as simulations that prove that the scheme provides a reliable and efficient solution for QoS provisioning for delay and loss sensitive applications.

Keyword
Admission control; DiffServ; QoS
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8725 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2007.04.009 (DOI)000248748500013 ()2-s2.0-34447276676 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
9. A model for Endpoint Admission Control Based on Packet Loss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for Endpoint Admission Control Based on Packet Loss
2008 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 4982, 506-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Endpoint admission control solutions, based on probing a transmission path, have been proposed to meet quality requirements of audio-visual applications with little support from routers. In this paper we present a mathematical analysis of a probe-based admission control solution, where flows are accepted or rejected based on the packet-loss statistics in the probe stream. The analysis relates both system performance to the design parameters, and the experienced probe packet loss probability to the packet loss probability of accepted flows. The goal is to provide a simple mathematical method to perform network dimensioning for admission control based on end-to-end probing.

Keyword
Carrier communication; Mathematical models; Network management; Packet loss; Parameter estimation; Routers; Design parameters; Network dimensioning
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8726 (URN)10.1007/978-3-540-79549-0_44 (DOI)000255924000044 ()2-s2.0-44649182327 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826. Ingår i Proc. of the 7th International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference.Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
10. Overload Protection for IEEE 802.11 Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overload Protection for IEEE 802.11 Cells
2006 (English)In: 2006 14th IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service, IWQoS 2006, 2006, 149-158 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a distributed admission control for the distributed coordination function of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs that limits the risk of congestion collapse due to a high arrival rate of flows. This control scheme requires no modification to the current distributed coordination function; it works by performing a short, non-disturbing probe that estimates the MAC service time. The flow is admitted if the estimate is below a threshold. We show how the threshold may be adjusted dynamically to maintain an average packet loss rate below a configurable limit. We show via extensive simulations that the admission control avoids congestion due to flow arrivals and that it maintains the loss probability below the given threshold regardless of the offered load or number of stations. Our simulations also analyze the main drawback of our scheme: a reduction in the link utilization. The admission control efficiently protects cells from overload and it may offer soft QoS guarantees to multimedia flows without the need for scheduling or-polling mechanisms in IEEE 802.11.

Series
International Workshop on Quality of Service, ISSN 1548-615X
Keyword
802.11 MAC service time; Admission control; Probing, overload protection; Wireless LAN
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8727 (URN)10.1109/IWQOS.2006.250462 (DOI)000240904300016 ()2-s2.0-34250632253 (Scopus ID)1-4244-0476-2 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-06-10 Created: 2008-06-10 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved

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