Rock damage caused by underground excavation and meteorite impacts
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
The intent of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the origin of fractures in rock. The man-made fracturing from engineering activities in crystalline rock as well as the fracturing induced by the natural process of meteorite impacts is studied by means of various characterization methods. In contrast to engineering induced rock fracturing, where the goal usually is to minimize rock damage, meteorite impacts cause abundant fracturing in the surrounding bedrock. In a rock mass the interactions of fractures on the microscopic scale (mm-cm scale) influence fractures on the mesoscopic scale (dm-m scale) as well as the interaction of the mesocopic fractures influencing fractures on the macroscopic scale (m-km scale). Thus, among several methods used on different scales, two characterization tools have been developed further. This investigation ranges from the investigation of micro-fracturing in ultra-brittle rock on laboratory scale to the remote sensing of fractures in large scale structures, such as meteorite impacts. On the microscopic scale, the role of fractures pre-existing to the laboratory testing is observed to affect the development of new fractures. On the mesoscopic scale, the evaluation of the geometric information from 3D-laser scanning has been further developed for the characterisation of fractures from tunnelling and to evaluate the efficiency of the tunnel blasting technique in crystalline rock. By combining information on: i) the overbreak and underbreak; ii) the orientation and visibility of blasting drillholes and; iii) the natural and blasting fractures in three dimensions; a analysis of the rock mass can be made. This analysis of the rock mass is much deeper than usually obtained in rock engineering for site characterization in relation to the blasting technique can be obtained based on the new data acquisition. Finally, the estimation of fracturing in and around two meteorite impact structures has been used to reach a deeper understanding of the relation between fracture, their water content and the electric properties of the rock mass. A correlation between electric resistivity and fracture frequency in highly fractured crystalline rock has been developed and applied to potential impact crater structures. The results presented in this thesis enables more accurate modelling of rock fractures, both supporting rock engineering design and interpretation of meteorite impact phenomena.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , xii, 57 p.
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1044
Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ), Fracture analysis, Pre-existing fractures, Class II behaviour, 3D laser scanning, Impact fracturing
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4824ISBN: 978-91-7415-035-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4824DiVA: diva2:14148
2008-09-03, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, 100 44, Stockholm, 14:00
Särkkä, Pekka, Prof.
Zimmerman, RobertHudson, John ALanaro, Flavio
QC 201007092008-06-122008-06-122010-07-09Bibliographically approved
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