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Rock damage caused by underground excavation and meteorite impacts
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The intent of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the origin of fractures in rock. The man-made fracturing from engineering activities in crystalline rock as well as the fracturing induced by the natural process of meteorite impacts is studied by means of various characterization methods. In contrast to engineering induced rock fracturing, where the goal usually is to minimize rock damage, meteorite impacts cause abundant fracturing in the surrounding bedrock. In a rock mass the interactions of fractures on the microscopic scale (mm-cm scale) influence fractures on the mesoscopic scale (dm-m scale) as well as the interaction of the mesocopic fractures influencing fractures on the macroscopic scale (m-km scale). Thus, among several methods used on different scales, two characterization tools have been developed further. This investigation ranges from the investigation of micro-fracturing in ultra-brittle rock on laboratory scale to the remote sensing of fractures in large scale structures, such as meteorite impacts. On the microscopic scale, the role of fractures pre-existing to the laboratory testing is observed to affect the development of new fractures. On the mesoscopic scale, the evaluation of the geometric information from 3D-laser scanning has been further developed for the characterisation of fractures from tunnelling and to evaluate the efficiency of the tunnel blasting technique in crystalline rock. By combining information on: i) the overbreak and underbreak; ii) the orientation and visibility of blasting drillholes and; iii) the natural and blasting fractures in three dimensions; a analysis of the rock mass can be made. This analysis of the rock mass is much deeper than usually obtained in rock engineering for site characterization in relation to the blasting technique can be obtained based on the new data acquisition. Finally, the estimation of fracturing in and around two meteorite impact structures has been used to reach a deeper understanding of the relation between fracture, their water content and the electric properties of the rock mass. A correlation between electric resistivity and fracture frequency in highly fractured crystalline rock has been developed and applied to potential impact crater structures. The results presented in this thesis enables more accurate modelling of rock fractures, both supporting rock engineering design and interpretation of meteorite impact phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , xii, 57 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1044
Keyword [en]
Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ), Fracture analysis, Pre-existing fractures, Class II behaviour, 3D laser scanning, Impact fracturing
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4824ISBN: 978-91-7415-035-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4824DiVA: diva2:14148
Public defence
2008-09-03, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, 100 44, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Interpretation of the development of induced cracks within a pre-cracked rock microstructure and the similarities with the geometry of larger-scale geological fractures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interpretation of the development of induced cracks within a pre-cracked rock microstructure and the similarities with the geometry of larger-scale geological fractures
(English)In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
Fracture interactions; brittle failure; pre-existing fractures; Mode I fracturing; Class II behaviour; Uniaxial compressive test
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8737 (URN)
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Coupled chemical-mechanical behaviour: the influence of salinity on the uniaxial compressive strength of the Smålands granite, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupled chemical-mechanical behaviour: the influence of salinity on the uniaxial compressive strength of the Smålands granite, Sweden
2006 (English)In: Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Coupled T-H-MC Processes in Geo-Systems: Fundamentals, Modeling, Experiments and Applications, Geo-Proc 2006, 2006, 437-443 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8738 (URN)
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
3. Numerical modelling of uniaxial compressive failure of granite with and without saline porewater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modelling of uniaxial compressive failure of granite with and without saline porewater
2008 (English)In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 7, 1126-1142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is important for rock engineering design to be able to validate numerical simulations, i.e. to check that they adequately represent the rock reality. In this paper, the capability and validity of four numerical models is assessed through the simulation of an apparently simple case: the complete process of microstructural breakdown during the uniaxial compressive failure of intact crystalline rock. In addition to comparing the capabilities of the four models, the results generated by each model were compared with the experimentally determined complete stress-strain curves for the Swedish Avro granite for different porewater conditions. In this way, it has been possible to audit the models' adequacy for this particular simulation task. It was found that although the models had common features, they were each idiosyncratically different and required considerable expertise to match the actual stress-strain curves (which did not monotonically increase in axial strain)-indicating that, for more complex simulations, both adequate modelling and appropriate validation are not going to be an easy task. The work was conducted within the framework of the international 2004-2007 DEmonstration of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments with emphasis on Thermo Hydro Mechanic and Chemical aspects (DECOVALEX-THMC) phase on coupled modelling extended to include chemical effects and with application to the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock.

Keyword
numerical modelling; uniaxial compressive strength; Class II behaviour; chemical degradation; auditing process; crystalline rock; DECOVALEX-THMC; ELASTOPLASTIC CELLULAR-AUTOMATON; BONDED-PARTICLE MODEL; LINEAR COMBINATION; ROCK FRACTURE; BRITTLE ROCK; STRAIN; STRENGTH; STRESS; SIMULATION; MECHANICS
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8739 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.12.001 (DOI)000256907200007 ()2-s2.0-43649108427 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of the Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) by using 3-D laser scanning technique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) by using 3-D laser scanning technique
2006 (English)In: The 4th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, Singapore, 8 - 10 November 2006, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keyword
3-D laser scanning; EDZ; tunnel documentation; fracture mapping
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8740 (URN)
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
5. Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) at the TASQ tunnel (Äspö, Sweden): Quantification of blasting effects on the geological settings by 3D-laser-scanning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) at the TASQ tunnel (Äspö, Sweden): Quantification of blasting effects on the geological settings by 3D-laser-scanning
(English)In: Engineering Geology, ISSN 0013-7952, E-ISSN 1872-6917Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
3D-laser-scanning; blasting performance; overbreak; underbreak; digital fracture mapping; EDZ
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8741 (URN)
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. A study of impact fracturing and electric resistivity related to the Lockne impact structure, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of impact fracturing and electric resistivity related to the Lockne impact structure, Sweden
2005 (English)In: Impact Tectonics / [ed] Koeberl C; Henkel H, 2005, 389-404 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The fracture frequency and the electric resistivity of outcrops of crystalline basement rocks at the Lockne meteorite impact site have been studied in order to investigate the extent and radial changes of impact induced fracturing. By measuring the electric resistivity and the fracture frequency at the same outcrops, the effect of fracturing on the electric properties of the rock is estimated and correlated with the fracture frequency. A negative linear correlation between the Log of fracture frequency and the Log of electric resistivity was found.

It was also found that the fracture frequency decreases in a transition zone over a distance of about 1100 m across the southern margin of the impact structure. A similar set of measurements was made across the suggested northern limit of the structure, but no change was detected. This implies that the outer limit of the Tandsbyn Breccia is further to the north. The studied area is, therefore, not likely to be the. margin of the structure.

Series
IMPACT STUDIES
Keyword
CRATER
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8742 (URN)10.1007/3-540-27548-7_15 (DOI)000229304500015 ()3-540-24181-7 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Meeting on Response of the Earth System to Impact Processes (IMPACT), Mora, SWEDEN, MAY 31-JUN 03, 2002, European Sci Fdn
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved

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