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Mechanical characterization of juvenile European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) using full-field strain measurements
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5818-2378
2008 (English)In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 54, no 5, 349-355 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Functional analysis of genes and proteins involved in wood formation and fiber properties often involves phenotyping saplings of transgenic trees. The objective of the present study was to develop a tensile test method for small green samples from saplings, and to compare mechanical properties of juvenile European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Small microtomed sections were manufactured and successfully tested in tension parallel to fiber orientation. Strain was determined by digital speckle photography. Results showed significantly lower values for juvenile hybrid aspen in both Young's modulus and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Average Young's moduli spanned the ranges of 5.9-6.6 and 4.8-6.0 GPa for European aspen and hybrid aspen, respectively. Tensile strength was in the range of 45-49 MPa for European aspen and 32-45 MPa for hybrid aspen. The average density (oven-dry) was 284 kg/m3 for European aspen and 221 kg/m3 for hybrid aspen. Differences in mechanical properties correlated with differences in density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 54, no 5, 349-355 p.
Keyword [en]
Hybrid aspen, Juvenile, Populus tremula × tremuloides, Tensile strength, Young's modulus
National Category
Wood Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8760DOI: 10.1007/s10086-008-0960-xISI: 000260150000002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-54249086657OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8760DiVA: diva2:14171
Note
QC 20100922. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published (20100922).Available from: 2008-06-17 Created: 2008-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanical behaviour of hardwoods: effects from cellular and cell wall structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical behaviour of hardwoods: effects from cellular and cell wall structures
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här avhandlingen var att undersöka mekaniska egenskaper hos olika arter av lövträd, och koppla egenskaperna till cell- och cellväggsstrukturen i materialet. Arterna som omfattades av undersökningen var Europeisk asp (Populus tremula), hybridasp (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) och ek (Quercus robur). Arterna inom familjen Populus, inklusive den snabbväxande hybridaspen, har på senare tid kommit att användas inom ett stort antal projekt inom genforskningen. Det har i sin tur ökat behovet av noggrannare bestämning av mekaniska egenskaper hos dessa arter. Ek har sedan tusentals år tillbaka varit ett populärt konstruktionsmaterial; något som har resulterat i ett stort antal arkeologiska ekfynd. Konservering av dessa inkluderar ofta dimensionsstabilisering med hjälp av polyetylen-glykol (PEG); en kemikalie som man vet påverkar de mekaniska egenskaperna. I vilken utstäckning detta sker är däremot inte helt klarlagt. Studien på euoropeisk asp och hybridasp inkluderade utveckling av en ny metod för provning av små juvenila prov i grönt tillstånd. Töjningsmätningar gjordes med hjälp av digital speckelfotografering (DSP). Axiell dragstyvhet och draghållfasthet var av speciellt intresse. Sämre mekaniska egenskaper hos hybridaspen korrelerade med medelvärden på densitet, som var lägre för hybriden än för den Europeiska aspen.

Ek undersöktes i svällt tillstånd, där svällningen inducerades med hjälp av PEG (molekylvikt 600). Axiell dragstyvhet och draghållfasthet samt radiell tryckstyvhet och ytspänning undersöktes. Töjningsmätningar i axiell riktning gjordes med hjälp av videoextensiometer, medan töjning i radiell riktning gjordes med hjälp av DSP. Övrig karakterisering av materialet inkluderade scanning electron microscopy (SEM), röntgenmikrotomografi och wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) för bestämning av mikrofibrillvinkel. Axiell dragstyvhet och draghållfasthet påverkades bara marginellt av PEG-behandlingen. WAXS-mätningarna visade att mikrofibrillvinkeln i materialet var mycket liten. Därigenom blir de mekaniska egenskaperna i axiell riktning till stor del beroende av mikrofibrillerna, vilket samtidigt minimerar den mjukningseffekt som PEG-impregneringen har på cellväggsmatrisen. De mekaniska egenskaperna i radiell kompression påverkades däremot starkt negativt av impregneringen. Detta antogs bero på den försvagande och uppmjukande effekt som PEG:en har på de radiellt orienterade märgstrålarna i veden.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties of different hardwood species and relate the properties to the structure at the cellular and cell wall level. The species examined were European aspen (Populus tremula), hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) and European oak (Quercus robur). The Populus species, including the fast-growing hybrid aspen, are used in a large number of projects using transgene technology, which also has raised the demand for a more extensive determination of mechanical properties of the species. Oak have been a popular construction material for thousands of years, esulting in a vast number of archaeological findings. Preservation of these often includes dimensional stabilization by polyethylene glycol (PEG), an impregnation agent which affects the mechanical properties. To which extent is not properly investigated, however. The study on European and hybrid aspen included development of a method for tensile testing of small, juvenile specimens in the green condition, where strain was measured using the digital speckle photography (DSP) technique. Mechanical performance of the species in terms of longitudinal tensile stiffness and strength were of special interest. Inferior mechanical properties of hybrid aspen corresponded well to mean values of density, which were lower for the hybrid aspen compared to European aspen.

Oak was examined in the swollen state, where swelling was induced by PEG with molecular weight 600. Longitudinal tensile stiffness and strength as well as radial stiffness and yield strength in compression were compared. Longitudinal and radial strain was measured using video extensiometry and DSP, respectively. Additional characterization of the material included imaging from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography and determination of microfibril angle using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Tensile stiffness and strength in the axial direction were only slightly affected by PEG-impregnation. WAXS measurements showed that microfibril angles were close to zero which implicates that cell wall properties are strongly dependent on the microfibrils, and only marginally influenced by the plasticization effects from PEG on the lignin/hemicellulose matrix. In the radial direction, on the other hand, mechanical performance was strongly decreased by PEG-impregnation. This was believed to originate from softening of rays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 37 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:42
National Category
Wood Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4830 (URN)978-91-7178-984-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2008-06-10, STFI-Salen, STFI-Packforsk, DKV 61, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2008-06-17 Created: 2008-06-17 Last updated: 2010-11-05Bibliographically approved
2. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Effect of chemical degradation on mechanical performance of archaeological oak from the Vasa ship.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Effect of chemical degradation on mechanical performance of archaeological oak from the Vasa ship.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wood is a complex material and the mechanical properties are influencedby a number of structural parameters. The objective of this study has been toinvestigate the relationship between the structure and the mechanical propertiesof hardwood. Two levels were of special interest, viz. the cellular structureand morphology of the wood, and the ultra-structure of the cell wall. In thenext step, it was of interest to examine how the mechanical properties ofhardwood change with spontaneous/induced changes in morphology and/orchemical composition beyond the natural variation found in nature.

Together, this constituted the framework and basis for two larger projects,one on European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremulax Populus tremuloides), and one on European oak (Quercus robur). Amethodology was developed where the concept of relative density and compositemechanics rules served as two useful tools to assess the properties ofthe cell wall. Tensile testing in the longitudinal direction was combined withchemical examination of the material. This approach made it possible to revealthe mechanical role of the lignin in the cell wall of transgenic aspen trees,and investigate the consequences of holocellulose degradation in archaeologicaloak from the Vasa ship.

The study on transgenic aspen showed that a major reduction in lignin inPopulus leads to a small but significant reduction in the longitudinal stiffness.The longitudinal tensile strength was not reduced. The results are explainableby the fact that the load-bearing cellulose in the transgenic aspen retained itscrystallinity, aggregate size, microfibril angle, and absolute content per unitvolume. The results can contribute to the ongoing task of investigating andpinpointing the precise function of lignin in the cell wall of trees.

The mechanical property study on Vasa oak showed that the longitudinaltensile strength is severely reduced in several regions of the ship, andthat the reduction correlates with reduced average molecular weight of theholocellulose. This could not have been foreseen without a thorough mechanicaland chemical investigation, since the Vasa wood (with exception fromthe bacterially degraded surface regions) is morphologically intact and witha micro-structure comparable to that of recent oak. The results can be usedin the ongoing task of mapping the condition of the Vasa wood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. viii, 67 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:14
Keyword
tensile strength, transgenic hybrid aspen, lignin down-regulation, the Vasa ship, chemical degradation, longitudinell draghållfasthet, transgen hybridasp, ligninnedreglering, Vasaskeppet, kemisk nedbrytning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32190 (URN)978-91-7415-914-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-29, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110420Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-08 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved

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