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Electrical and optical properties of thin film SnO2 and SnO2:F: transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , x, 46 p.
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4832ISBN: 978-91-7178-958-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4832DiVA: diva2:14182
Presentation
2008-06-12, K408, KTH, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101109Available from: 2008-06-17 Created: 2008-06-17 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Optical band-edge absorption of oxide compound SnO2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical band-edge absorption of oxide compound SnO2
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2006 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, no 15, 5361-5364 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tin oxide (SnO2) is an important oxide for efficient dielectrics, catalysis, sensor devices, electrodes and transparent conducting coating oxide technologies. SnO2 thin film is widely used in glass applications due to its low infra-red heat emissivity. In this work, the SnO2 electronic band-edge structure and optical properties are studied employing a first-principle and fully relativistic full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The optical band-edge absorption alpha(omega) of intrinsic SnO2 is investigated experimentally by transmission spectroscopy measurements and their roughness in the light of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sample films were prepared by spray pyrolysis deposition method onto glass substrate considering different thickness layers. We found for SnO2 qualitatively good agreement of the calculated optical band-gap energy as well as the optical absorption with the experimental results.

Keyword
tin oxide, transparent conducting thin film, SnO2, transparent electrodes
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8766 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.12.040 (DOI)000238623300029 ()2-s2.0-33744520852 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101109. Conference: 8th International Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces, and Nanostructures/13th International Congress on Thin Films. Stockholm, SWEDEN. JUN 20-23, 2005 Available from: 2008-06-17 Created: 2008-06-17 Last updated: 2011-10-04Bibliographically approved
2. Strong inter-conduction-band absorption in heavily fluorine doped tin oxide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong inter-conduction-band absorption in heavily fluorine doped tin oxide
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2008 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 255, no 5, 1874-1879 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optical, electrical and structural properties of thin. film tin oxide (TO), F-doped tin oxide (FTO; n(F) approximate to 6 x 10(20) cm (3)) and highly F-doped tin oxide (hFTO; n(F) approximate to 10 x 10(20) cm (3)), grown by spray pyrolysis technique, are studied by atomic force microscopy, Hall effect, X-ray. fluorescence and transmission/reflection measurements. The resistivity (rho = 32 x 10 (4) Omega cm for intrinsic tin oxide) shows intriguing characteristics when F concentration n(F) is increased (rho = 6 x 10 (4) Omega cm for FTO but 25 x 10 (4) Omega cm for hFTO) whereas the carrier concentration is almost constant at high F concentration (n(c) approximate to 6 x 10(20) cm (3) for FTO and hFTO). Thus, F seems to act both as a donor and a compensating acceptor in hFTO. The high carrier concentration has a strong effect on the optical band-edge absorption. Whereas intrinsic TO has room-temperature band-gap energy of E-g approximate to 3.2 eV with an onset to absorption at about 3.8 eV, the highly doped FTO and hFTO samples show relatively strong absorption at 2-3 eV. Theoretical analysis based on density functional calculations of FTO reveals that this is not a defect state within the band-gap region, but instead a consequence of a hybridization of the F donor states with the host conduction band in combination with a band. filling of the lowest conduction band by the free carriers. This allows photon-assisted inter-conduction band transitions of the free electrons to energetically higher and empty conduction bands, producing the below-gap absorption peak.

Keyword
Tin oxide, Transparent conducting film, Doping, Optical absorption, Resistivity
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26005 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.06.113 (DOI)000261274100039 ()2-s2.0-56949095313 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101109 Uppdaterad från submitted till published 20101109.Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
3. Polarization dependence of the optical response in SnO2 and the effects from heavily F doping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polarization dependence of the optical response in SnO2 and the effects from heavily F doping
2009 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 23, 6301-6304 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optical properties of intrinsic SnO2 (TO) and fluorine doped (FTO) are characterized in terms of the dielectric function epsilon(h omega) = epsilon(1) (h omega) + i epsilon(2)(h omega) by electronic structure calculations. The intrinsic TO shows intriguing absorption characteristics in the 3.0-8.0 eV region: (i) the low energy region of the fundamental band gap (3.2<h omega<3.9 eV), the optical transitions Gamma(+)(3) -> Gamma(+)(1) (valence-band maximum to conduction-band minimum) is symmetry forbidden, and the band-edge absorption is therefore extremely weak. (ii) In the higher energy region (3.9<h omega<5.1 eV) the Gamma(-)(5) -> Gamma(+)(1), transitions (from the second uppermost valence band) is strongly polarized perpendicular to the main c axis. (iii) Transitions with polarization axis parallel to c axis are generated from Gamma(-)(2) -> Gamma(+)(1) transitions (from the third uppermost valence bands), and dominates at high energies (5.1<h omega eV). Heavily F doped TO (FTO) with doping concentrations n(F) = 4 x 10(20) cm(-3) changes the absorption significantly: (iv) Substitutional F-O generates strong inter-conduction band absorption at 0.8, 2.2, and 3.8 eV which affects also the high frequency dielectric constant epsilon(infinity). (v) Interstitial F-i is inactive as a single dopant, but act as a compensating acceptor in highly n-type FTO. This explains the measured non-linear dependence of the resistivity with respect to F concentration.

Keyword
Tin oxide, Fluorine doping, Optical properties, Polarization effect
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26007 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2009.02.063 (DOI)000269930400021 ()2-s2.0-68349118134 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101109 Uppdaterad från submitted till published 20101109.Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved

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