Microwave materials have been widely used in a variety of applications ranging from communication devices to military satellite services, and the study of materials properties at microwave frequencies and the development of functional microwave materials have always been among the most active areas in solid-state physics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering. In recent years, the increasing requirements for the development of high speed, high frequency circuits and systems require complete understanding of the properties of materials function at microwave frequencies.
Ferroelectric materials usually have high dielectric constants, and their dielectric properties are temperature and electric field dependent. The change in permittivity as a function of electric field is the key to a wide range of applications. Ferroelectric materials can be used in fabrication capacitors for electronic industry because of their high dielectric constants, and this is important in the trend toward miniaturization and high functionality of electronic products. The simple tunable passive component based on ferroelectric films is a varactor which can be made as a planar structure, and electrically tunable microwave integrated circuits using ferroelectric thin films can be developed. Therefore, it is very important to characterize the dielectric constant and tunability of ferroelectric thin films.
This thesis shows experimental results for growth, crystalline properties and microwave characterization of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (NKN), AgTa0.5Nb0.5O3 (ATN), Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) as well as AgTaO3 (ATO), AgNbO3 (ANO) thin films. The films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and rf-magnetron sputtering of a stoichiometric, high density, ceramic NKN, ATN, BST target onto single crystal LaAlO3(LAO), Al2O3 (sapphire), and Nd:YAlO3, and amorphous glass substrates. By x-ray diffractometry, NKN, ATN, BST films on LAO substrates were found to grow epitaxially, whereas films on r-cut sapphire substrates were found to be preferentially (00l) oriented.
Coplanar waveguide interdigital capacitor (CPWIDC) structures were fabricated by standard photolithography processing and metal lift-off technique. Microwave properties of the NKN/Sapphire and ATN/Sapphire with CPW structures were characterized using on-wafer microwave measurement technique. Measurement setup is composed of network analyzer, probe station, and microwave G-S-G probes. External electric field through the connection between network analyzer and power supply was applied to measure voltage tunability. Measured S-parameter were used for the calculation of capacitance, loss tanδ, tunability and K-factor.
The NKN films interdigital capacitors with 2 μm finger gap on Nd:YAlO3 showed superior performance compared to ATN in the microwave range from 1 to 40 GHz. Within this range, the voltage tunability (40V, 200 kV/cm) was about 29%, loss tangent ∼ 0.13, K-factor = tunability/tanδ from 152% @ 10GHz to 46% @ 40GHz.
The microwave performance of ATN film CPWIDC with 2 μm finger gap on sapphire substrate in the microwave range from 1 to 40 GHz showed that frequency dispersion is about 4.3%, voltage tunability was 4.7% @ 20GHz and 200 kV/cm, loss tangent ∼ 0.068 @ 20GHz, K-factor = tunability/tanδ is ranged from 124% @ 10GHz to 35% @ 40GHz.
The BST films CPWIDC with 2μmfinger gap on Al2O3 substrate showed frequency dispersion of capacitance in the microwave range from 1 to 40 GHz about 17%, voltage tunability = 1 - C(40V)/C(0) ∼ 22.2%, loss tangent ∼ 0.137 @ 20GHz, and K-factor = tunability/tanδ from 281% @ 10GHz to 95% @ 40GHz.
Stockholms: KTH , 2005. , viii, 40 p.
ferroelectrics, sodium potassium niobates, silver tantalate niobate, barium stronitium titanate
Kozyrev, Andrey B.