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Hydrogeochemical contrasts in the shallow aquifer systems of the Lower Katari Basin and SouthernPoopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Universidad Mayor de San Andres. (KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group)
Universidad Mayor de San Andres. (Laboratorio de Hidroquímica)
Universidad Mayor de San Andres. (Laboratorio de Hidroquímica)
Universidad Mayor de San Andres. (Laboratorio de Hidroquímica)
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water sources for human consumption in regions such as the southeast of Lake Titicaca (Lower Katari Basin: LKB) and the south of Lake Poopó (Southern Poopó Basin: SPB) have high concentrations of arsenic (As) (>10 μg/L; WHO and NB-512 guideline value). These regions belong to the Bolivian Altiplano and characterized by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow, with geological formations of volcanic origin, in addition to brines and other mineral deposits. This study focuses in the comparision of the geochemical processes for the occurance of As, sources and its mobilization in groundwater (GW) in LKB and SPB. Samples of GW, surface water and sediments were collected from both the basins. The study found As (LKB: 0.8 - 288 μg/L and SPB: 2.6 - 207 μg/L), boron (B) (LKB: 96 - 2473 μg/L and SPB: 507 - 4359 μg/L), manganese (Mn) (LKB: 0.6 - 7259 μg/L) and salinity (LKB: 125 - 11740 μS/cm) are higher than the WHO guideline. The results indicate serious deterioration of GW quality that is apparently not safe for human consumption. The spatial distribution of As was observed in diverse geology of both the basins and it was heterogeneously distributed within the sediments. The highest As concentrations are found in the northern region of LKB and the PACK belt in SPB (both alluvial sediments). The dissolution and exchange of bases are the processes that govern the mineralization of GW. Whereas, sequential extraction of sediment and mineral saturation indices indicate the iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides as well as hydroxides are the most predominant mineral as potential sorbent of As. Nevertheless, solids and liquid from anthropogenic origin in surface water (LKB) are causing environmental problem for communities on the banks of river.

Keywords [en]
Arsenic; Bolivian Altiplano; Alluvial sediments; Geochemistry; Adsorption; Groundwater
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273376OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-273376DiVA, id: diva2:1430431
Projects
Aquatic Pollution and Remediation in the Titicaca, Uru Uru, Poopó High Altitude Lakes System
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000553
Note

QC 20200518

Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hydrogeochemistry and spatial variability of arsenic and other trace elements in the Lower Katari Basin around Lake Titicaca, Bolivian Altiplano.: Impact on drinking water quality and groundwater management.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogeochemistry and spatial variability of arsenic and other trace elements in the Lower Katari Basin around Lake Titicaca, Bolivian Altiplano.: Impact on drinking water quality and groundwater management.
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water is a world-wide problem. Thenatural origin of As, its mobility and transport are of great interest in BolivianAltiplano (Lower Katari Basin: LKB and Sothern Poopó Basin: SPB) due topresence of mineral ore deposits, brines, hot springs and volcanic rocks.Hydrogeochemical spatio-temporal and spatial variability investigations wereapplied to groundwater, surface water and sediments with a statistical approachto better understand the spatial distribution of As, major ions and trace elements,and evaluate the sources of dissolved species and elucidate the processes thatgovern the evolution of natural water in the LKB. The result reveal high levelsof As, boron (B), antimony (Sb), manganese (Mn) and salinity in shallow wells,which exceeds the guideline values of the Bolivian regulation (NB-512) andWorld Health Organization (WHO). The seasonal variation and its impact onthe water quantity, on top of the solids and liquid residual (origin Pallina River)poses significant negative health risk for the community at the banks of theKatari River. The first evaluation of the hydrogeological study indicates that thegroundwater flow was observed in the direction southeast - northwest (SE -NW), and there is an interaction between groundwater and surface water. Thespatial distribution of As varies considerably due to geological characteristics ofthe area as well as due to the heterogeneously distributed evaporites in thesediments (in LKB and SPB). However, the highest concentrations of As arefound in the alluvial sediments of the northern region. Sequential extraction ofsediment along with geochemical modeling (mineral saturation indices) indicatesthat the iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides as well as their hydroxides are mostimportant adsorbent minerals of As in central and southern region of LKB. Thechemistry of water bodies in LKB and SPB is strongly influenced by theinteraction with the sediment constituents and by the spatial-temporal variations.The results of spatial analysis indicate that despite of the outliers there is a goodautocorrelation for As, B and Sb, since Moran's I values are positive. The globalspatial dependence analysis indicated a positive and statistically significant spatialautocorrelation (SA) for all cases and TEs are not randomly distributed at 99%confidence level.

Abstract [sv]

Arsenikförorening i dricksvatten är ett världsomfattande problem. Arsenikens(As) naturliga ursprung, dess rörlighet och transport är av stort intresse i detBolivianska Altiplano (nedre Katari-bassängen: LKB och södra Poopóbassängen:SPB) på grund av närvaron av mineral malmer, saltsjöar, varmavattenkällor och vulkaniska bergarter. Hydrogeokemiska undersökningar avrumslig och tidsmässig variabilitet tillämpades på grundvatten, ytvatten ochsediment med en statistisk metod för att bättre förstå den rumsliga förekomstenav As, stora joner och spårelement, och utvärdera källorna till upplösta ämnenoch belysa processerna som styr utvecklingen av naturligt vatten i LKB.Resultaten indikerar höga halter av As, bor (B), antimon (Sb), mangan (Mn) ochhög salthalt i grunda brunnar i det undersökta LKB, som överskrider riktvärdenaför dricksvatten i den bolivianska förordningen (NB-512) och WHO, vilket görvattnet olämpligt att dricka. Den säsongsmässiga variationen och dess påverkanpå vattenmängden utöver belastningen av fasta ämnen och avloppsvatten(Pallina-floden) medför en betydande negativ hälsoeffekt för samhällen vidKatari-floden. Den första utvärderingen av den hydrogeologiska studienindikerar att grundvattenflödet observerades i riktningen sydost - nordväst (SE- NW), vilket visas i sektorerna med interaktion mellan grundvatten och ytvatten.Den rumsliga förekomsten av As varierar avsevärt på grund av geologiskaegenskaper i området såväl som på grund av de heterogent fördeladeevaporitavlagringar i sedimenten (i LKB och SPB), men de högstakoncentrationerna av As finns i de alluviala sedimenten i norra regionen.Sekventiell extraktion av sediment tillsammans med geokemisk modellering(mineralmättnadsindex) indikerar att järn (Fe) och aluminium (Al) oxider ochhydroxider är de viktigaste mineralerna som adsorberar As i den centrala ochsödra regionen av LKB. Båda grund- och ytvattenkemin i LKB och SPBpåverkas starkt av interaktionen med sedimentbeståndsdelarna och de rumsligatemporäravariationerna. Resultaten från den rumsliga analysen indikerar atttrots outliers finns det en stark autokorrelation mellan As, B och Sb, eftersomMorans I-värdena är positiva. Den globala rumsliga beroendeanalysenindikerade en positiv och statistiskt signifikant rumslig autokorrelation (SA) föralla fall och att TEs är inte slumpmässigt fördelade på 99% konfidensnivå.Nyckelord: Arsenik, spårelement, multivariat analys, rumslig variabilitet,hydrogeologi, spatio-temporär variation, Nedre Katari-bassängen, BolivianAltiplano, alluviala sediment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. p. 42
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2018
Keywords
Arsenic, trace elements, multivariate analysis, spatial variability, hydrogeology, spatio-temporal variability, Lower Katari Basin, Bolivian Altiplano, alluvial sediments, Arsenik, spårelement, multivariat analys, rumslig variabilitet, hydrogeologi, spatio-temporär variation, Nedre Katari-bassängen, Bolivian Altiplano, alluviala sediment
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273377 (URN)978-91-7873-563-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-06-11, Via Zoom -- https://kth-se.zoom.us/meeting/register/u5Isf--grTguHNPDOGMrkrpy5nka38XCSnZG, Du som saknar dator/datorvana kan kontaka prosun@kth.se eller mtisl@kth.se / Use the e-mail address if you need technical assistance, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Aquatic Pollution and Remediation in the Titicaca, Uru Uru, Poopó High Altitude Lakes System
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 75000553
Note

QC 20200518

Available from: 2020-05-18 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved

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