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ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0297-598X
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5535-6368
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
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2002 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 36, no 4, 287-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 36, no 4, 287-307 p.
Keyword [en]
Waste management; Material flow analysis; Systems analysis; Life cycle assessment; Simulation model; ORWARE
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8912DOI: 10.1016/S0921-3449(02)00031-9ISI: 000178793600001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8912DiVA: diva2:14397
Note
QC 20100505Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2011-11-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a systematic approach for technology assessment by combining material flow analysis, life cycle assessment and life cycle costing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a systematic approach for technology assessment by combining material flow analysis, life cycle assessment and life cycle costing
2002 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kemiteknik, 2002. ix, 54 p.
Series
Trita-KET-IM, 2002:25
Keyword
technology assessment, material flow analysis, substance flow analysis, life cycle assessment, life cycle costing
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-1512 (URN)91-631-3448-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
(English)
Note
20100506Available from: 2003-02-13 Created: 2003-02-13 Last updated: 2010-08-17Bibliographically approved
2. On sustainability assessment of technical systems: experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and ecoeffect tools
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On sustainability assessment of technical systems: experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and ecoeffect tools
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role.

This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology.

The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of alternatives at the same time, and carrying out the assessment of the three dimensions independently. It should give way to transparent system where the level of quality of input data can be comprehended. The assessment approach should focus on a selected number of key input data, tested calculation procedures, and comprehensible result presentation.

The challenge in developing and applying this approach is the complexity of method integration and information processing. The different parts to be included in the same platform come in with additional uncertainties hampering result interpretations. The hitherto tendency of promoting disciplinary lines will continue to challenge further developments of such interdisciplinary approaches.

The thesis draws on the experience from ORWARE, a Swedish technology assessment tool applied in the assessment of waste management systems and energy systems; and from the EcoEffect tool used in the assessment of building properties; all assessed as components of a larger system. The thesis underlines the importance of sustainability considerations beginning from the research and development phase of technical systems. The core message of this thesis is that technical systems should be researched as indivisible parts of a complex whole that includes society and the natural environment. Results from such researches can then be transformed into design codes and specifications for use in the research and development, planning and structuring, and implementation and management of technical systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 77 p.
Series
Trita-KET-IM, ISSN 1402-7615 ; 2005:17
Keyword
technology assessment, interdisciplinarity, sustainability, sustainability assessment, industrial ecology, substance flow analysis, material flow analysis, life cycle assessment
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-550 (URN)91-628-6708-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-12-16, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100505Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2010-09-13Bibliographically approved

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