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Investigations on moisture damage-related behaviour of bituminous materials
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis presents results of literature review on classical and contemporary aspects of stripping, as well as experimental investigations on moisture damage as influenced by bituminous materials.

Previous research in the area of moisture damage was reviewed and synthesized into a state-of-the-art. Important parameters linked to moisture sensitivity, like bituminous material characteristics, dynamic loads from heavy vehicles, environmental factors, construction practice and nature of anti-stripping additives, are presented. The state-of-the-art in current test methods is summarized and given.

The experimental work involved investigations of the influence of bitumen and aggregate composition on water susceptibility. The influence of aggregate mineralogy and chemistry was evaluated using eleven aggregates and one bitumen, followed by studying the interactive effect of four bitumens and four aggregates. Moisture sensitivity was evaluated in accordance with (EN 12697-12:2003) for conditioning, ASTM D 4123 for resilient modulus determination, and (EN 12697-23:2003) for indirect tensile strength testing. Furthermore, thermal stability of two liquid amine anti-stripping additives mixed with two bitumens of varied acidity was investigated using potentiometric titration and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Lastly, a technique based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) was developed and used for studying transport of water across thin bitumen films, as well as stripping at bitumen/substrate interfaces. Bitumens from different sources and three substrates (silicon, germanium and zinc selenide crystals) were used. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that aggregates containing sodium and potassium in alkali feldspars generally showed high moisture sensitivity. In contrast, presence of calcium, magnesium and iron was associated with aggregates with low moisture sensitivity. Contrary to several previous findings, one aggregate with practically 100% quartz exhibited low moisture sensitivity. No linear relationship between moisture sensitivity and the contents of SiO2 and Al2O3 in the aggregates studied was established. Results of the interactive influence of bitumen and aggregate composition showed that high acid and low penetration bitumens exhibited high dry strength for all the aggregates studied. On the other hand, for a given bitumen, the wet strengths were found to be aggregate specific.

The results of tests on thermal stability of amine additives showed that usefulness of these additives reduces considerably, when the more alkaline additive was mixed with the high acid bitumen, followed by storing the blends under pronounced conditions of time and temperature (24 hours and 140ºC, or more, in this study). Much less interaction occurred when the less alkaline additive was blended with the low acid bitumen. Even if a correlation was found between the results of potentiometric titration and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, the latter was not considered good enough at detecting amine additives, especially at low dosages.

The technique based on FTIR-ATR developed in this study distinguished between good and bad bitumens with regard to stripping. The effectiveness of amine-based additives in reducing stripping was also shown by the method. Three likely processes occurred during the test, namely water diffusion, film break, and displacement (stripping) of bitumen from the substrate surface. The results also indicated that the diffusion process of water into the bitumen/substrate interface does not obey Fick’s law.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , ii, 40 p.
Series
Trita-VT. FR, ISSN 1650-867X ; 2005:02
Keyword [en]
Moisture damage, State-of-the-Art, Stripping, Moisture sensitivity, Bituminous materials
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-556OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-556DiVA: diva2:14427
Public defence
2005-12-20, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100831Available from: 2005-12-14 Created: 2005-12-14 Last updated: 2010-08-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Classical and contemporary aspects of stripping in bituminous mixtures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classical and contemporary aspects of stripping in bituminous mixtures
2004 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, Vol. 5, no 1, 7-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stripping or removal of bitumen from an aggregate because of water penetrating into the interface causes many pavements to fail. Stripping has been existent since the advent of paving technology. It causes functional weakening of pavements leading to costly repairs. This state-of-the-art paper deals with important concepts of stripping as, bitumen chemistry and rheology, aggregate properties (chemical and mineralogical composition, surface texture, morphology, porosity, etc), traffic, water properties, construction practices (mixing, placement and in-service drainage) and nature of antistripping additives. Adhesion of bitumen onto aggregate is explained based on theories like mechanistic tenacity, molecular orientation, chemical reaction, and thermodynamic balance of interfacial forces. Stripping is elucidated using several mechanisms namely, displacement, detachment, spontaneous emulsification, bitumen film rupture, water pore pressure, hydraulic scouring, chemical disbanding, microbial activity, osmosis; and blistering and pitting. Attendant theories to the mechanisms are explained. Moisture sensitivity test methods emerged are described and discussed. The large number of tests that have evolved shows the importance of the phenomenon of stripping. Remedial measures which include use of antistripping additives, careful selection of hot mix component materials, good construction practice, and others have been proposed for use in practice.

National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8932 (URN)
Note
QC 20100831Available from: 2005-12-14 Created: 2005-12-14 Last updated: 2010-08-31Bibliographically approved
2. Influence of aggregate chemical and mineralogical composition on stripping in bituminous mixtures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of aggregate chemical and mineralogical composition on stripping in bituminous mixtures
2005 (English)In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, Vol. 6, no 4, 229-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of aggregate chemical and mineralogical composition on moisture sensitivity was investigated using 11 aggregates from typical tropical and temperate climates and one bitumen. Mix design and compaction were based on Swedish Road 94 hot mix base specifications and moisture damage was determined using resilient modulus and tensile strength ratios. As much as practically possible, air voids, gradation, compaction level, bitumen content and curing were controlled. Mixtures from aggregates containing sodium and potassium exhibited relatively high moisture sensitivity. The converse was apparent for aggregates with calcium, magnesium and iron. No significant correlation was observed between the strength ratios and contents of Al2O3 and SiO2. Stripping was generally high for aggregates with quartz and alkali feldspars, although one aggregate with practically 100% quartz showed low moisture sensitivity. Statistical analysis showed good correlation between resilient modulus and tensile strength ratios.

Keyword
Aggregate, Moisture sensitivity, Resilient modulus, Stripping, Tensile strength, Aggregates, Composition, Elastic moduli, Mixtures, Moisture, Statistical methods, Tensile strength, Moisture sensitivity, Resilient modulus, Stripping, Bituminous materials
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8933 (URN)10.1080/10298430500440796 (DOI)2-s2.0-29744438426 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100831. Tidigare titel: Influence of aggregate chemical and mineralogical composition on moisture sensitivity in bituminous mixtures. Titel ändrad och uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100831.Available from: 2005-12-14 Created: 2005-12-14 Last updated: 2010-09-02Bibliographically approved
3. Impact of bitumen and aggregate composition on stripping in bituminous mixtures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of bitumen and aggregate composition on stripping in bituminous mixtures
2006 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 39, no 287, 303-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of bitumen and aggregate composition on stripping was investigated using four bitumens and four aggregates. Moisture sensitivity was assessed based on retained resilient modulus and tensile strength ratio (MRR and TSR, respectively). The results indicate that mixtures from the bitumen with a high acid number exhibited high resilient modulus and tensile strength in the dry condition for all the aggregates. In wet condition, this conclusion did also hold except for one aggregate. Regarding penetration grade, mixtures made with lower penetration grade bitumen exhibited higher resilient modulus and tensile strength, in dry and wet conditions, than those of higher penetration grade. Bitumen characteristics like acid number, penetration grade and molecular size distribution did not influence moisture sensitivity. Mixtures with aggregates containing alkali metals (sodium and potassium) exhibited relatively high moisture sensitivity, regardless of the bitumen used. In contrast, indications of moisture sensitivity were not apparent in mixtures made with aggregates containing calcium, magnesium and iron. Data analysis revealed that variability in moisture sensitivity is attributed to aggregate rather than bitumen. No significant interaction effect between bitumen and aggregate was found on moisture sensitivity. The results indicated good correlation between MRR and TSR in ranking mixtures for stripping.

Keyword
Calcium, Concrete aggregates, Iron, Magnesium printing plates, Moisture, Potassium, Sensitivity analysis, Sodium, Tensile strength, Acid number, Penetration grade, Ranking mixture, Resilient modulus, Bituminous materials
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8934 (URN)10.1007/s11527-005-9040-5 (DOI)000243151100004 ()2-s2.0-33747091179 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100831. Tidigare titel: Impact of bitumen and aggregate composition on moisture damage in bituminous mixtures. Titel ändrad och uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100831.Available from: 2005-12-14 Created: 2005-12-14 Last updated: 2010-08-31Bibliographically approved
4. Characterization of chemical reactivity of liquid antistripping additives using potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of chemical reactivity of liquid antistripping additives using potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy
2006 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, no 5, 2174-2180 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical reactivity of two liquid antistripping additives mixed with two bitumens of diverse acid numbers was evaluated. Additives present in the blends were detected by use of potentiometric titration and infrared spectroscopy. Tests were done at dosages of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%; storage temperatures of 25, 100, 140, and 150 degrees C; and storage times of 1, 24, and 72 h. At 0.5% dosage, close to typical field values, the more basic additive mixed with bitumen of high acid number almost ceased to be detected after 24 h of storage at 140 degrees C. The less basic additive could be detected beyond these conditions, irrespective of the bitumen used. At higher dosages, reactions with the bitumens were found to be more pronounced with the more basic additive. The reactions between the additives and bitumens studied seemed to be higher in the bitumen with higher acid number, irrespective of the dosage. Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameters studied significantly affected change in amount of additives detected in the blends. A correlation was established between potentiometric titration and infrared spectroscopy in detecting amine additives. This correlation notwithstanding, infrared spectroscopy was found to not be a good tool for measuring amines in the blends, especially at low concentrations.

Keyword
Bitumens, Chemical reactivity, Liquid antistripping additives, Potentiometric titration, Acidity, Amines, Blending, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Titration, Additives
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8935 (URN)10.1021/ef050397y (DOI)000240615500062 ()2-s2.0-33749625913 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100831. Tidigare titel: Characterization of thermal stability of liquid anti-stripping additives using potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy. Titel ändrad och uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100831.Available from: 2005-12-14 Created: 2005-12-14 Last updated: 2010-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Laboratory studies on stripping at bitumen/substrate interfaces using FTIR-ATR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory studies on stripping at bitumen/substrate interfaces using FTIR-ATR
2007 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 42, no 9, 3197-3206 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A technique based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) was developed and used to study movement of water into bitumen/substrate interfaces, as well as to characterize stripping. Bitumens from different sources were used and applied on various substrates (silicon, germanium and zinc selenide) as thin films. The influence of bitumen type, substrate type, temperature, film thickness and modification with amines, on water damage was studied. The technique gave information on water flow into interfaces and how stripping possibly occurs. It distinguished between stripping and non-stripping bitumens. At least one of three processes occurred, namely water diffusion, film fracture, and bitumen displacement by water, respectively. The diffusion of water did not obey Fick's law. Stripping was influenced by bitumen source when silicon and germanium substrates were used. Notching the films made the process of water entry almost occur immediately. Additives significantly reduced stripping in the moisture-sensitive bitumen on silicon and germanium substrates, even after film notching. Although, good agreement was observed between tests for the bitumens that did not strip, the tests on stripping bitumens showed poor agreement.

Keyword
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Germanium, Interfaces (materials), Silicon, Thin films, Water, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR), Bitumen sources, Film notching, Bituminous materials
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8936 (URN)10.1007/s10853-006-0181-x (DOI)000246387700033 ()2-s2.0-34248352149 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100831. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100831.

Available from: 2005-12-14 Created: 2005-12-14 Last updated: 2016-12-19Bibliographically approved

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