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Presence of trihalomethanes in drinking water plants in Nicaragua
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8241-2225
2006 (English)In: Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - Aqua, ISSN 0003-7214, E-ISSN 1365-2087, Vol. 55, no 3, 221-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of enhanced coagulation on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMS) from drinking water was studied in four treatment plants in Nicaragua. Enhanced and conventional coagulation techniques were compared with regard to the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), which was measured by surrogate paramametres. The enhanced coagulation process showed a better removal of NOM, and as a consequence the THM formation was up to 50% lower than with conventional coagulation. The influences of chlorine dosage, temperature, PH and contact time on the THM formation in water treated by enhanced and conventional coagulation were also studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 55, no 3, 221-231 p.
Keyword [en]
conventional coagulation, drinking water, enhanced coagulation, natural organic
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8986ISI: 000238128500006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33744494292OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8986DiVA: diva2:14509
Note

QC 20101129 Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published(20101129) Tidigare titel: Presence of Trihalomethanes in Four Drinking Water Plants in Nicaragua

Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Removal of natural organic matter by enhanced coagulation in Nicaragua
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of natural organic matter by enhanced coagulation in Nicaragua
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The existence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a drinking water plant of Nicaragua has been investigated in order to see whether the concentration exceeded the maximum contaminant level recommended by the environmental protection agency of the United States (USEPA) and the Nicaragua guidelines. The influence of pH, temperature, chlorine dose and contact time on the formation of THMs were studied. The contents of organic matter measured by surrogate parameters such as total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet absorbance and specific ultraviolet absorbance were also determined in order to show which type of organic matter is most reactive with chlorine to form THMs. Models developed by other researchers to predict the formation of trihalomethanes were tested to see whether they can be used to estimate the trihalomethane concentration. In addition, empirical models were development to predict the THM concentration of the drinking water plant analysed. The raw water was treated by conventional and enhanced coagulation and these processes were compared with regard to the removal of natural organic matter (NOM). The significance of the results was assessed using statistic procedures.

The average concentration of THMs found at the facility is below the USEPA and Nicaragua guideline values. Nevertheless the maximum contaminant level set by USEPA is sometimes exceeded in the rainy season when the raw water is rich in humic substances. Comparison between the water treated by conventional and enhanced coagulation shows that enhanced coagulation considerably diminished the trihalomethane formation and the value after enhanced coagulation never exceeded the guidelines. This is because enhanced coagulation considerably decreases the organic matter due to the high coagulant dose applied. The study of the trihalomethane formation when varying pH, time, temperature and chlorine dose using water treated by conventional and enhanced coagulation showed that higher doses of chlorine, higher pH, higher temperature and a longer time increases the formation of THMs. However, combinations of two and three factors are the opposite. The predicted THM formation equations cannot be used for the water at this facility, since the results shown that the measured THM differs significantly from the THM concentration predicted. Two empirical models were developed from the data for enhanced coagulation, using linear and non-linear regression. These models were tested using the database obtained with conventional coagulation. The non-linear model was shown to be able to predict the formation of THMs in the Boaco drinking water plant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 56 p.
Series
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 225
Keyword
drinking water, surrogate parameters, enhanced coagulation, natural organic matter
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-586 (URN)
Presentation
2006-01-26, Sal Q25, Osquldas väg 6, Stockholm, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101129Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16 Last updated: 2011-02-14Bibliographically approved
2. Removal of Natural Organic Matter to reduce the presence of Trihalomethanes in drinking water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of Natural Organic Matter to reduce the presence of Trihalomethanes in drinking water
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In countries located in tropical zones, a critical task in drinking water plants is the removal of the natural organic matter (NOM), particularly during the rainy season when a lot of organic matter is transported by run-off into the water bodies. It provokes overloaded in the plants and they have often needed to be shut down. In the dry season, the NOM removal is also difficult due to its low concentration, and greater coagulant dosages are needed to destabilize the negative charge of the NOM.

In order to increase the NOM removal, synthetic polymers based on acrylamide are sometimes used as coagulant aids. However, they have been associated with Alzheimerand are carcinogenic. Therefore, the present requirement is to find new treatments affordable for the conditions existing in tropical countries. The application of green compounds has become a responsibility to guarantee the health of the population.

The situation in Nicaragua is similar to that in many tropical countries. At present, there are ten drinking water plants which use conventional treatment. Nine of them use surface water supplied by rivers, and one uses water from a lake. Many of these plants have problems of continuity, quantity, water quality, and coverage, although the water cost is low.

The removal of natural organic matter by conventional or enhanced coagulation using aluminium sulphate or chitosan as coagulant while reducing the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) was the aim of this work. Chitosan is an environment-friendly compound that can act as coagulant, flocculant and adsorbent. Adsorption with activated carbon and chitosan has also been studied. The natural organic matter in the source waters was fractionated in order to determine which fractions are removed more easily by coagulation and which are recalcitrant.

The experimental works was carried out with a period of sampling between 2003 and 2010, taking into consideration the dry and rainy seasons. The results show that conventional coagulation with aluminium sulphate is not sufficient to reduce the presenceof NOM sufficiently to avoid a high level of THM in the disinfection step. The NOM removal is greatly improved by treatment with enhanced coagulation, but a significant amount of NOM is not removed, with a high THM concentration as a consequence. High NOM removal can however be achieved by enhanced coagulation and subsequent adsorption with granular activated carbon.

Chitosan has good properties as a coagulant in water with a high NOM content and performs well as flocculant. It also has a high adsorption capacity for NOM. Therefore, chitosan could be a good option as a substitute for aluminium sulphate compounds. However, since chitosan does not work properly in the dry season, when the NOM content is low, the use of aluminium sulphate in combination with chitosan should bestudied in more detail. A field with a large potential is the modification of the chitosan structure to increase its capacity for NOM removal and decrease the need for aluminium sulphate. Another advantage of using chitosan is the reduction of the negative impact of shrimp and squat lobster shells on the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 80 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:8
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29759 (URN)978-91-7415-856-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-02-18, K2, Teknikringen 28, entréplan, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110215Available from: 2011-02-15 Created: 2011-02-15 Last updated: 2011-02-15Bibliographically approved

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