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On the effects of the packet size distribution on FEC performance
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4876-0223
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2764-8099
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3704-1338
2006 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 50, no 8, 1104-1129 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For multimedia traffic like VBR video, knowledge of the average loss probability is not sufficient to determine the impact of loss on the perceived visual quality and on the possible ways of improving it, for example by forward error correction (FEC) and error concealment. In this paper we investigate how the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process, i.e., the probability of consecutive losses and the distribution of the number of packets lost in a block of packets and the related FEC performance. We present an exact mathematical model for the loss process of an MMPP + MMPP/Er/1/K queue and compare the results of the model to simulations performed with various other packet size distributions (PSDs), among others, the measured PSD from an Internet backbone. The results show that analytical models of the PSD matching the first three moments (mean, variance and skewness) of the empirical PSD can be used to evaluate the performance of FEC in real networks. We conclude that the exponential PSD, though it is not a worst case scenario, is a good approximation for the PSD of today's Internet to evaluate FEC performance. We also conclude that the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process and thus the efficiency of FEC mainly in access networks where a single multimedia stream might affect the multiplexing behavior. We evaluate how the PSD affects the accuracy of the widely used Gilbert model to calculate FEC performance and conclude that the Gilbert model can capture loss correlations better if the CoV of the PSD is high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 50, no 8, 1104-1129 p.
Keyword [en]
Forward error correction, Gilbert-model, MMPP, Packet loss process, Packet size distribution
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9094DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2005.09.006ISI: 000237104200007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33646175145OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9094DiVA: diva2:14656
Note
QC 20100924. Uppdaterad från In press till Published (20100924). Conference: 3rd International Workshop on QoS in Multiservice IP Networks. Catania, ITALY. FEB, 2005Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Internet Video Transmission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet Video Transmission
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The Internet has rapidly evolved from being a scientific experiment to a commercial network connecting millions of hosts that carries traffic generated by a large amount of applications with diverse requirements. Its architecture was however designed to enable efficient point-to-point delivery of bulk data, and can not provide statistical guarantees on the timely delivery of delay sensitive data such as streaming and real-time multimedia. Thus, applications that require low loss probabilities in today's Internet have to use some end-to-end error recovery mechanism. For delay sensitive applications the introduced latency by the applied schemes has to be low as well. Traffic control functions such as delay limited shaping and forward error correction (FEC), and multiple description coding (MDC) have been proposed for variable bitrate video. Their major drawback is, however, that it is difficult to predict their efficiency, as it depends on many factors like the characteristics of the stream itself, the characteristics of the traffic in the network and the network parameters. Consequently, it is difficult to decide which control mechanisms to employ, how to combine them and to choose the right parameters (e.g. block length, code rate) for optimal performance.

In this thesis we present results on the efficiency of traffic control functions and MDC for video transmission based on mathematical models and simulations. We investigate the efficiency of delay limited traffic shaping and the trade-offs in the joint use of traffic shaping and forward error correction. We identify the packet size distribution of the traffic in the network as an additional factor that may influence the efficiency of FEC, and present a thorough analysis of its possible effects. We present an analytical comparison of MDC versus media-dependent FEC and media-independent FEC, and based on the results we conclude that MDC is a promising error control solution for multimedia communications with very strict delay bounds in an environment with bursty losses. We combine the analytical results with traces from measurements performed on the Internet to evaluate how efficient these error control schemes are under real loss patterns. We compare the efficiency of MDC and media-dependent FEC in the presence of channel estimation errors; we propose a new rate allocation method, which is robust to mis-estimations of the channel state and which improves error resilience on non-stationary channels. Finally we present an analytical model of the performance of an end-point-based multimedia streaming architecture based on multiple distribution trees and forward error correction, and analyze the behavior of the architecture for a large number of nodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006
Keyword
Traffic control, MDC, FEC, Multicast streaming, Queuing theory
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-623 (URN)91-7178-256-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-02-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH,Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2010-11-15

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Dán, GyörgyFodor, ViktóriaKarlsson, Gunnar

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