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Internet Video Transmission
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4876-0223
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The Internet has rapidly evolved from being a scientific experiment to a commercial network connecting millions of hosts that carries traffic generated by a large amount of applications with diverse requirements. Its architecture was however designed to enable efficient point-to-point delivery of bulk data, and can not provide statistical guarantees on the timely delivery of delay sensitive data such as streaming and real-time multimedia. Thus, applications that require low loss probabilities in today's Internet have to use some end-to-end error recovery mechanism. For delay sensitive applications the introduced latency by the applied schemes has to be low as well. Traffic control functions such as delay limited shaping and forward error correction (FEC), and multiple description coding (MDC) have been proposed for variable bitrate video. Their major drawback is, however, that it is difficult to predict their efficiency, as it depends on many factors like the characteristics of the stream itself, the characteristics of the traffic in the network and the network parameters. Consequently, it is difficult to decide which control mechanisms to employ, how to combine them and to choose the right parameters (e.g. block length, code rate) for optimal performance.

In this thesis we present results on the efficiency of traffic control functions and MDC for video transmission based on mathematical models and simulations. We investigate the efficiency of delay limited traffic shaping and the trade-offs in the joint use of traffic shaping and forward error correction. We identify the packet size distribution of the traffic in the network as an additional factor that may influence the efficiency of FEC, and present a thorough analysis of its possible effects. We present an analytical comparison of MDC versus media-dependent FEC and media-independent FEC, and based on the results we conclude that MDC is a promising error control solution for multimedia communications with very strict delay bounds in an environment with bursty losses. We combine the analytical results with traces from measurements performed on the Internet to evaluate how efficient these error control schemes are under real loss patterns. We compare the efficiency of MDC and media-dependent FEC in the presence of channel estimation errors; we propose a new rate allocation method, which is robust to mis-estimations of the channel state and which improves error resilience on non-stationary channels. Finally we present an analytical model of the performance of an end-point-based multimedia streaming architecture based on multiple distribution trees and forward error correction, and analyze the behavior of the architecture for a large number of nodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006.
Keyword [en]
Traffic control, MDC, FEC, Multicast streaming, Queuing theory
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-623ISBN: 91-7178-256-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-623DiVA: diva2:14661
Public defence
2006-02-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH,Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2010-11-15
List of papers
1. On the efficiency of shaping live video streams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the efficiency of shaping live video streams
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2002  international symposium on performance evaluation of computer and telecommunications systems, 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work the efficiency of shaping live video streams is considered. We propose low complexity shaping algorithms adequate for real-time operation and supporting applications with a wide range of delay tolerance. The effect of shaping is investigated considering video streams multiplexed at an output link with a small buffer to absorb packet scale congestion. The advantage of using small buffers when transmitting video streams is the limited delay and delay variation. Consequently, we concentrate on the loss characteristics to evaluate the performance of the proposed solutions. We present mathematical analysis based on fluid flow modeling and the theory of large deviations and confirm the results with simulation.

Keyword
quality of service, live video transmission, source shaping, packet scale buffering, large deviation theory
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26108 (URN)
Conference
international symposium on performance evaluation of computer and telecommunications systems (SPECS '02)
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2010-11-15 Created: 2010-11-15 Last updated: 2011-11-14Bibliographically approved
2. Quality differentiation with source shaping and forward error correction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality differentiation with source shaping and forward error correction
2003 (English)In: Interactive Multimedia On Next Generation Networks / [ed] Ventre, G; Canonico, R, 2003, 222-233 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The transmission of video traffic over the Internet is a fundamental issue of network design. Video applications require quality of service guarantees from the network in terms of limited packet loss, end-to-end delay, and delay variation. The question of today's research and development is how to provide these guarantees considering the architecture of the present Internet. In the last years a variety of admission control schemes based on per-hop or end-to-end measurements has been suggested to control delay and loss sensitive streams with very little or no support at the routers. Most of these solutions, however, have to apply the same acceptance threshold for all streams, a significant limitation considering the diverse quality requirements of the applications. In this work we investigate how source shaping and forward error correction (FEC) can be used together to achieve application specific quality differentiation in terms of end-to-end delay and packet loss probability. While source shaping and FEC have been proposed independently to decrease the probability of packet loss due to buffer overflow, their joint use has not been studied before. As the two control functions use the same scarce resource, end-node delay, and their efficiency to decrease loss probability is proportional to the introduced delay but with a decreasing marginal gain, combining the two a better performance can be achieved than by using only one of them. The performance evaluation focuses on the optimal delay allocation for shaping and FEC, such that the loss probability is minimized. We investigate how shaping can be used to substitute FEC redundancy and the sensitivity of the quality differentiation to the background traffic characteristics.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 2899
Keyword
Quality of Service, source shaping, FEC
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9092 (URN)000187499900018 ()3-540-20534-9 (ISBN)
Conference
1st International Workshop on Multimedia Interactive Protocols and Systems Location: NAPLES, ITALY Date: NOV 18-21, 2003
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2011-11-14Bibliographically approved
3. On the effects of the packet size distribution on the packet loss process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the effects of the packet size distribution on the packet loss process
2006 (English)In: Telecommunications Systems, ISSN 1018-4864, E-ISSN 1572-9451, Vol. 32, no 1, 31-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Real-time multimedia applications have to use forward error correction (FEC) anderror concealment techniques to cope with losses in today's best-effort Internet. The efficiency of these solutions is known however to depend on the correlation between losses in the media stream. In this paper we investigate how the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process, that is, the distribution of the number of lost packets in a block, the related FEC performance and the average loss run length. We present mathematical models for the loss process of the MMPP+M/D/1/K and the MMPP+M/M/1/K queues; we validate the models via simulations, and compare the results to simulation results with an MPEG-4 coded video trace. We conclude that the deterministic packet size distribution (PSD) not only results in lower stationary loss probability than the exponential one, but also gives a less correlated loss process, both at a particular average link load and at a particular stationary loss probability as seen by the media stream.Our results show that for applications that can only measure the packet loss probability, the effects of the PSD on FEC performance are higher in access networks, where a single multimedia stream might affect the multiplexing behavior. Our results show that the effects of the PSD on FEC performance are higher in access networks, where a single multimedia stream might affect the multiplexing behavior and thus can improve the queuing performance by decreasing the variance of its PSD.

Keyword
forward error correction, loss run length, performance evaluation, Markov modulated Poisson process
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9093 (URN)10.1007/s11235-006-8201-3 (DOI)000237826500002 ()2-s2.0-33744546796 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100924. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published (20100924).Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. On the effects of the packet size distribution on FEC performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the effects of the packet size distribution on FEC performance
2006 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 50, no 8, 1104-1129 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For multimedia traffic like VBR video, knowledge of the average loss probability is not sufficient to determine the impact of loss on the perceived visual quality and on the possible ways of improving it, for example by forward error correction (FEC) and error concealment. In this paper we investigate how the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process, i.e., the probability of consecutive losses and the distribution of the number of packets lost in a block of packets and the related FEC performance. We present an exact mathematical model for the loss process of an MMPP + MMPP/Er/1/K queue and compare the results of the model to simulations performed with various other packet size distributions (PSDs), among others, the measured PSD from an Internet backbone. The results show that analytical models of the PSD matching the first three moments (mean, variance and skewness) of the empirical PSD can be used to evaluate the performance of FEC in real networks. We conclude that the exponential PSD, though it is not a worst case scenario, is a good approximation for the PSD of today's Internet to evaluate FEC performance. We also conclude that the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process and thus the efficiency of FEC mainly in access networks where a single multimedia stream might affect the multiplexing behavior. We evaluate how the PSD affects the accuracy of the widely used Gilbert model to calculate FEC performance and conclude that the Gilbert model can capture loss correlations better if the CoV of the PSD is high.

Keyword
Forward error correction, Gilbert-model, MMPP, Packet loss process, Packet size distribution
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9094 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2005.09.006 (DOI)000237104200007 ()2-s2.0-33646175145 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100924. Uppdaterad från In press till Published (20100924). Conference: 3rd International Workshop on QoS in Multiservice IP Networks. Catania, ITALY. FEB, 2005Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Are multiple descriptions better than one?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are multiple descriptions better than one?
2005 (English)In: NETWORKING 2005: NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES, SERVICES, AND PROTOCOLS; PERFORMANCE OF COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS; MOBILE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS / [ed] Boutaba, R; Almeroth, K; Puigjaner, R; Shen, S; Black, JP, 2005, 684-696 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we compare three schemes proposed for error recovery for real-time multimedia applications: media-dependent forward error correction (MD-FEC) proposed for real-time audio, media-independent forward error correction (MI-FEC) proposed for real-time video and the recently re-discovered multiple description coding (MDC). We provide a detailed queueing analysis for these schemes considering bursty traffic sources, and combine results from information theory and queueing theory to analyze their performance bounds. We conclude that MDC always performs better than MD-FEC, and that the average loss probability plays a key role in the choice of the optimal parameters. We also show that MDC outperforms MI-FEC if packet losses are highly correlated, like in the current Internet and the available delay for error control is low.

Series
LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 3462
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9095 (URN)000230113900055 ()2-s2.0-24944540393 (Scopus ID)3-540-25809-4 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference Location: Waterloo, CANADA Date: MAY 02-06, 2005
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
6. A rate-distortion based comparison of media-dependent FEC and MDC for real-time audio
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A rate-distortion based comparison of media-dependent FEC and MDC for real-time audio
2006 (English)In: 2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-12, 2006, Vol. 3, 1002-1007 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Applications that require low loss probabilities in today's Internet have to employ some end-to-end error-recovery mechanism. For interactive applications with strict delay constraints, the delay introduced by the applied schemes has to be low as well. In this paper we compare two schemes proposed for error recovery for real-time audio applications: media-dependent forward error correction (MD-FEC) and multiple description coding (MDC). We conclude that MDC always performs better than MD-FEC, and that the stationary loss probability plays a key role in the choice of the optimal parameters for these schemes. Combining the analytical results with the loss characteristics of measured traces of VoIP calls we conclude that in the current Internet these schemes give considerable gains for streams with a high code rate only, and for these streams MDC can decrease the average distortion significantly better than MD-FEC.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Communications, ISSN 1550-3607
Keyword
Blocking probability, Constraint theory, Delay circuits, Interactive computer systems, Real time control
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26119 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2006.254878 (DOI)000287032701018 ()2-s2.0-42549094620 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0354-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2006) Location: Istanbul, TURKEY Date: JUN 11-15, 2006
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2010-11-15 Created: 2010-11-15 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
7. On the stability of end-point-based multimedia streaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the stability of end-point-based multimedia streaming
2006 (English)In: NETWORKING 2006: NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES, SERVICES, AND PROTOCOLS; PERFORMANCE OF COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS; MOBILE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS / [ed] Boavida F, Plagemann T, Stiller B; Westphal C, Monteiro E, Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin , 2006, 678-690 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose an analytical model of a resilient, tree-based end-node multicast streaming architecture that employs path diversity and forward error correction for improved resilience to node churns and packet losses. Using the model and via simulations we study the performance of this architecture in the presence of packet losses and dynamic node behavior. We show that the overlay can distribute data to nodes arbitrarily far away from the root of the trees as long as the loss probability is lower than a certain threshold, but the probability of packet reception suddenly drops to zero once this threshold is exceeded. The value of the threshold depends on the ratio of redundancy and on the number of the distribution trees. Using the model and simulations we show that correlated and inhomogeneous losses slightly worsen the overlay's performance. We apply the model to study the effects of dynamic node behavior and compare its results to simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2006
Series
LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE, ISSN 0302-9743
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9098 (URN)10.1007/11753810_57 (DOI)000238114800057 ()2-s2.0-33745927393 (Scopus ID)3-540-34192-7 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference Coimbra, PORTUGAL, MAY 15-19, 2006
Note
QC 20110127Available from: 2006-02-13 Created: 2006-02-13 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved

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