In this work, different aspects on the re-use of wood based fibres have been studied, focusing on ink detachment of flexographic ink from model cellulose surfaces and changes in porous structure of kraft fibres following different treatments. New model systems for evaluation of ink detachment and ink-cellulose interactions were used. Ink detachment was studied using Impinging jet cell equipment, taking into consideration the influence of storage conditions, surface roughness and surface energy of the cellulose substrate. A micro adhesion measurement apparatus (MAMA) was used to directly study ink-cellulose interactions, from which the adhesive properties between ink and cellulose, having various surface energies, could be derived. UV-light, elevated temperatures, longer storage time, decreased surface energy, i.e. making the cellulose surface more hydrophobic, and high surface roughness all negatively affected ink detachment. Attenuated total reflectance - fourier transform infra red (ATR-FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate structural and chemical changes of ink and cellulose upon storage at elevated temperature or under UV-light. After storage at elevated temperatures, ATR-FTIR spectra indicated that a hydrolysis or an oxidative reaction took place as a peak at 1710 cm-1 appeared. AFM revealed that storage at elevated temperatures caused the latex particles present in the ink to form a film, most likely due to annealing. Less ink detached from hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. Ink detachment decreased for rougher cellulose substrates due to an increased molecular contact area.
Fibre pore structure and water retaining ability influenced fibre/fibre joint strength and different paper strength properties. Investigations took into account the effect of pulp yield, counter-ion types, pH, salt, hornification and strength enhancing additives. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NMR), inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) and water retention value (WRV) measured the changes that occur in the fibre wall upon varying the conditions. Each different measuring technique contained unique information such that a combination of the techniques was necessary to give as complete a picture as possible over the changes that occurred in the fibre wall upon varying the conditions for the fibre. A correlation between fibre pore radius and sheet strength properties was found, suggesting that fibres with larger pores allow for a larger molecular contact area between fibres to be formed during drying and consolidation of the paper. Fibre/fibre joint strength, fibre flexibility, and the number of efficient fibre/fibre contacts also controlled sheet strength. The effect of different strength enhancing additives on fibre pore structure and paper strength was investigated. Larger pores in the fibres allowed for additives to penetrate into the fibre wall. Additives with low molecular mass (Mw) penetrated into the fibre wall to a larger extent than additives with a high Mw, causing an embrittlement of the fibre. However, low Mw additives gave higher sheet tensile strength despite a leveling out in strength at high additions, indicating that the fibre wall can only adsorb a limited amount of chemical. Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of PAH and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were added separately to the pulp. PEC significantly improved both tensile strength and Z-strength, whereas PAH alone did not increase the strength properties to the same extent unless the sheets were heated to 150°C for 10 minutes. The results suggested that the effect of PEC was dominated by an improvement in fibre/fibre joint strength, whereas the effect of PAH was significantly affected by an improvement of the intra-fibre bond strength
Stockholm: Fiber- och polymerteknologi , 2004. , 73 p.