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Changes in the microstructure and morphology of high-impact polystyrene subjected to multiple processing and thermo-oxidative degradation
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3572-7798
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5394-7850
Univ. Politecn., Valencia.
2007 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 43, no 10, 4371-4381 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple processing and thermo-oxidation have been employed to simulate the degradative processes to which high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) is subjected during processing, service life, and mechanical recycling. A curve-fitting procedure has been proposed for the analysis of the individual bands corresponding to polybutadiene microstructure resulting from Raman spectroscopy. The analysis of the glass transition relaxations associated with the polybutadiene (PB) and polystyrene (PS) phases has been performed according to the free-volume theory. Both reprocessing and thermo-oxidative degradation are responsible for complex physical and chemical effects on the microstructure and morphology of PB and polystyrene PS phases, which ultimately affect the macroscopic performance of HIPS. Multiple processing affects PB microstructure and the free-volume parameter associated with the PS phase. Physical ageing of the PS phase predominates for shorter exposure to thermo-oxidation; after prolonged exposure, however, the chemical effects on the PB phase become significant and strongly influence the overall structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 43, no 10, 4371-4381 p.
Keyword [en]
high-impact polystyrene, degradation, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic-mechanical properties, polybutadiene microstructure
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4891DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.07.017ISI: 000250386600031Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-34748865085OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4891DiVA: diva2:1795
Note
QC 20100902Available from: 2008-09-17 Created: 2008-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quality Assessment for the Improved Use of Recycled Styrenic Polymers: Application to packaging and electronic waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality Assessment for the Improved Use of Recycled Styrenic Polymers: Application to packaging and electronic waste
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 Polymeric waste materials should be considered resources for the manufacture of new products through recycling processes, with a similar status as virgin fossil-based plastics and biopolymers from renewable resources. Several efforts can be done to achieve this qualitative quantum leap and introduce recycled products in the market with competitive performance. Detailed scientific knowledge about the degradation processes to which polymeric materials are subjected under their life cycle is important when discussing their further waste recovery possibilities and the performance of recycled plastic. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the quality assessment of recycled plastics is fundamental to guarantee their performance in new applications. Three key quality properties have been previously defined for this quality analysis: degree of mixing (composition), degree of degradation, and presence of low molecular weight compounds (degradation products, contaminants, additives).A dual experimental approach employing multiple processing and thermooxidation is proposed to model the life cycle of recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) used in packaging applications, and in electrical and electronic equipment (E&E). Both reprocessing and thermo-oxidative degradation are responsible for coexistent physical and chemical effects (chain scission, crosslinking, apparition of oxidative moieties, polymeric chain rearrangements, and probably physical ageing) on the microstructure and morphology of polybutadiene (PB) and polystyrene (PS) phases; these effects ultimately influence the long-term stability, and the rheological and mechanical behaviour of HIPS. The PB phase has proved to be the initiation point of HIPS degradation throughout the life cycle. Thermo-oxidation seems to have more severe effects on HIPS properties; therefore, it can be concluded that previous service life may be the part of the life cycle with the greatest influence on the recycling possibilities and performance of HIPS recyclates in second-market applications.Different strategies are presented for the quality analysis of recycled styrenic polymers from packaging waste and electrical and electronic equipment. The results from the life cycle degradation simulation were compared with those obtained from real samples from a large-scale mechanical recycling plant. The presence and emission of low molecular weight compounds from recycled HIPS from packaging waste has been critically discussed using solvent and headspace extraction procedures. Special attention has been devoted to the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled HIPS from electrical and electronic equipment using advanced extraction and chromatographic techniques, due to the legislative and environmental implications of these additives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 57 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:63
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4895 (URN)978-91-7415-112-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2008-09-25 Created: 2008-09-17 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved
2. Modelling the degradation processes in high-impact polystyrene during the first use and subsequent recycling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the degradation processes in high-impact polystyrene during the first use and subsequent recycling
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Polymers are subjected to physical and chemical changes during their processing, service life, and further recovery, and they may also interact with impurities that can alter their composition. These changes substantially modify the stabilisation mechanisms and mechanical properties of recycled polymers. Detailed knowledge about how the different stages of their life cycle affect the degree of degradation of polymeric materials is important when discussing their further waste recovery possibilities and the performance of recycled plastics. A dual-pronged experimental approach employing multiple processing and thermo-oxidation has been proposed to model the life cycle of recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). Both reprocessing and thermo-oxidative degradation are responsible for coexistent physical and chemical effects (chain scission, crosslinking, apparition of oxidative moieties, polymeric chain rearrangements, and physical ageing) on the microstructure and morphology of polybutadiene (PB) and polystyrene (PS) phases; these effects ultimately influence the long-term stability, and the rheological and mechanical behaviour of HIPS. The PB phase has proved to be the initiation point of HIPS degradation throughout the life cycle. Thermo-oxidation seems to have more severe effects on HIPS properties; therefore, it can be concluded that previous service life may be the part of the life cycle with the greatest influence on the recycling possibilities and performance of HIPS recyclates in second-market applications. The results from the life cycle degradation simulation were compared with those obtained from real samples from a large-scale mechanical recycling plant. A combination of different analytical strategies (thermal analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, and chromatographic analysis) is necessary to obtain a detailed understanding of the quality of recycled HIPS as defined by three key properties: degree of mixing, degree of degradation, and presence of low molecular weight compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. 39 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2007:30
Keyword
Recycling; high-impact polystyrene; degradation; quality analysis; thermal analysis; vibrational spectroscopy; chromatography techniques; thermo-oxidation; reprocessing; dynamic mechanical properties; polybutadiene microstructure.
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4407 (URN)978-91-7178-678-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-06-07, E2, Osquars backe 14, Stokcholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101119Available from: 2007-05-30 Created: 2007-05-30 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved

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