Analytical strategies for the quality assessment of recycled high-impact polystyrene: A combination of thermal analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, and chromatography
2007 (English)In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 604, no 1, 18-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Various analytical techniques (thermal analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, and chromatographic analysis) were used in order to monitor the changes in polymeric properties of recycled high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) throughout mechanical recycling processes. Three key quality properties were defined and analysed; these were the degree of mixing (composition), the degree of degradation, and the presence of low molecular weight compounds. Polymeric contaminations of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were detected in some samples using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Vibrational spectroscopy showed the presence of oxidised parts of the polymeric chain and gave also an assessment of the microstructure of the polybutadiene phase in HIPS. The presence of low molecular weight compounds in the HIPS samples was demonstrated using microwave assisted extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), residues from the polymerisation, additives, and contaminations were detected in the polymeric materials. Styrene was identified already in virgin HIPS; in addition, benzaldehyde, alpha-methylbenzenaldehyde, and acetophenone were detected in recycled HIPS. The presence of oxygenated derivates of styrene may be attributed to the oxidation of polystyrene (PS). Several styrene dimers were found in virgin and recycled HIPS; these are produced during polymerisation of styrene and retained in the polymeric matrix as polymerisation residues. The amount of these dimers was highest in virgin HIPS, which indicated that emission of these compounds may have occurred during the first lifetime of the products. This paper demonstrates that a combination of different analytical strategies is necessary to obtain a detailed understanding of the quality of recycled HIPS.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 604, no 1, 18-28 p.
recycling, quality analysis, high-impact polystyrene, degradation, thermal analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, chromatographic techniques
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4892DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2007.04.046ISI: 000251293700004ScopusID: 2-s2.0-35648936956OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4892DiVA: diva2:1796
QC 201009202008-09-172008-09-172010-09-20Bibliographically approved