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On Peritectic Reactions and Transformations and Hot Forming of Cast Structures
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing. (Materials Processing)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with peritectic reactions and transformations that occur during the solidification of many alloys. Peritectics are believed to be a major cause of crack-formation in many steels, thus, good knowledge of the mechanisms by which these phenomena occur is essential for preventing such defects. The thesis also handles the behaviour of metals, in particular cast structures, during hot forming. Grain size and microstructure are of most importance in determining the strength, toughness and performance of a steel. For achieving enhanced mechanical and microstructural properties, good understanding of the phenomena occurring during hot forming is required.

Peritectic reactions and transformations were studied in Fe-base and steel alloys through differential thermal analysis (DTA) experiments and micrographic investigation of quenched DTA samples. The effect of the ferrite/austenite interface strain during the peritectic reaction on equilibrium conditions was thermodynamically analysed, and the results were related to temperature observations from DTA experiments conducted on Fe-base alloys and low-alloy steels. Massive transformations from ferrite to austenite were observed in the micrographs of a number of quenched low-alloy steel samples and it was proposed that these transformations are uncontrolled by diffusion, and occur in the solid state as a visco-plastic stress relief process. DTA study of an austenitic stainless steel indicated that the alloy can exhibit primary precipitations to either ferrite or austenite. A continuously-cast breakout shell of the steel was analyzed and it was suggested that the observed irregularities in growth were due to alternating precipitations of ferrite and austenite; parts of the shell with higher ratios of primary-precipitated ferrite shrink in volume at the peritectic temperature and experience reduced growths.

An experimental method for studying the behaviour of metals during hot forming developed, and hot compression tests were conducted on cast copper and ball-bearing steel samples. Flow stress curves were obtained at varying temperatures and strain rates, and the results showed good agreement with earlier observations reported in literature. Micrographic analysis of quenched samples revealed variations in grain size and a model was fitted to describe the grain size as a function of deformation temperature and strain.

Solidification growth during continuous casting of stainless steel and copper was numerically modelled. A varying heat transfer coefficient was proposed to approximate the experimentally measured growth irregularities in the continuously-cast stainless steel breakout shell. Solidification growth of pure copper was also modelled in the Southwire continuous casting process. Temperature measurements from the chill mould were used to approximate the temperature gradient and the heat extraction from the solidifying strand, and the results were used in a two-dimensional model of solidification.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , 34 p.
Series
Trita-MG, ISSN 1104-7127 ; 2009:02
Keyword [en]
peritectic reactions, massive transformations, thermal analysis, Fe-base alloys, steels, growth irregularities, hot forming, compression testing, flow stress, grain size.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10006ISBN: 978-91-7415-242-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10006DiVA: diva2:201059
Public defence
2009-03-27, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-02 Last updated: 2010-08-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the effect of strain on peritectic reactions and transformations in Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu binary alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the effect of strain on peritectic reactions and transformations in Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu binary alloys
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, Vol. 22, no 1-4, 232-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Differential thermal analysis (DTA) experiments conducted on Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu alloys showed undercooling below the equilibrium peritectic temperatures, T-P. The intervals between the observed liquidus and peritectic temperatures were on average 11 degrees C and 8 degrees C larger than the intervals obtained from equilibrium phase diagrams of Fe-Ni and Fe-Cu respectively. The transformation from delta-Fe to gamma-Fe during the peritectic reaction is associated with density change and strain build up at the delta-Fe/gamma-Fe interface. Thermodynamic calculations showed that by introducing the strain energy at the delta-Fe/gamma-Fe interface, T-P dropped 9 K below its equilibrium value and the increase in the liquidus-to-peritectic temperature interval was in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The growth rate of gamma-Fe during a peritectic transformation was calculated based on the strain-induced undercooling in T-P and the results showed partial agreement with observations obtained from CSLM directional solidification experiments conducted earlier on Fe-Ni alloys.

Keyword
Peritectic reaction, Interface energy, Strain, Creep, Vacancy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10028 (URN)10.1179/136404609X367803 (DOI)000268395500057 ()2-s2.0-70350783810 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100803 2nd International Conference on Advances in Solidification Process, Graz, AUSTRIA, JUN 17-20, 2008Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2011-03-04Bibliographically approved
2. Peritectic Reactions and Transformations in Low-Alloy Steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peritectic Reactions and Transformations in Low-Alloy Steels
2010 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 41A, no 11, 2776-2783 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Differential thermal analysis (DTA) experiments on low-alloy steels with varying C, Si, Cr, and Mo contents indicated an increase in the difference between the liquidus and peritectic temperatures during solidification with the decrease in C and increase in Mo contents. In a number of the quenched samples, massive transformations of ferrite to austenite were observed. Electron microprobe analysis of the diffusion across a massive transformation front, along with the high growth rates estimated, gives strong reason to believe that these growths are uncontrolled by diffusion. As ferrite transforms to austenite during the peritectic reaction, shrinkage in volume occurs, causing elastic straining at the interface separating the two phases. It was shown through thermodynamic analysis of the equilibrium at the triple point that the increase in energy of the two phases due to this strain can result in undercooling below the equilibrium peritectic temperature and decreases in the equilibrium peritectic concentrations.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10029 (URN)10.1007/s11661-010-0289-0 (DOI)000283371900003 ()2-s2.0-78049418674 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2012-02-14Bibliographically approved
3. Hot Working Behaviour of Cast Metal Samples
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot Working Behaviour of Cast Metal Samples
2009 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
TRITA-MG, ISSN 1104-7127 ; 2009:05
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10033 (URN)
Note

QC 20100803

Available from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-05 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
4. An on-site experimental heat flux study and its interpretation in a FEMLAB finite element simulation of continuous casting of copper in the South-Wire process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An on-site experimental heat flux study and its interpretation in a FEMLAB finite element simulation of continuous casting of copper in the South-Wire process
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 58, no 4, 509-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The South-Wire process, a development of the Properzi process, to continuously cast copper has been studied both experimentally and by finite element computer simulation. The experimental work has been performed on site to get temperature data as a function of time at several locations within the mould. These experimental data have been used to evaluate boundary conditions for the heat transfer from the strand-mould interface and through the mould. A simulation model of the casting process has been developed in the program FEMLAB. In this program temperature varying material data and time varying boundary conditions have been used. The simulation model has been verified by comparing with an analytical solution, and then applied to the real physical process.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10034 (URN)000232332700003 ()2-s2.0-33644697046 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-05 Last updated: 2010-08-30Bibliographically approved
5. A study of shell growth irregularities in continuously cast 310S stainless steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of shell growth irregularities in continuously cast 310S stainless steel
2009 (English)In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 36, no 7, 521-528 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growth irregularities in continuous casting are believed to be associated with crack formation and breakouts. Differential thermal analysis on 310S stainless steel samples indicated primary precipitations of both austenite and ferrite during solidification. In tensile tests on solidifying samples, abrupt shrinkages in volume were detected in the peritectic range of temperatures. Micrographic and microsegregation analysis on samples extracted from a breakout shell revealed high ratios of primary-precipitated austenite in the thick sections of the shell, and high ratios of primary-precipitated ferrite in the thin sections. Alternating precipitations of austenite and ferrite are proposed to occur during solidification. Regions of the shell with high ratios of primary austenite remain in contact with the mould and exhibit high growth rates, whereas regions with high ratios of primary ferrite shrink in volume due to the ferrite to austenite transformation, which results in the formation of air gaps between the shell and the mould and reductions in growth rate.

Keyword
Growth irregularities, Continuous casting, Stainless steel, Peritectic, Precipitation, Shrinkage
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14202 (URN)10.1179/174328109X445714 (DOI)000270918600005 ()2-s2.0-77949457784 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100726Available from: 2010-07-26 Created: 2010-07-26 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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