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Quantum Coherence and Quantum-Vacuum Effects in Some Artificial Electromagnetic Media
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. (Teoretisk elektroteknik)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The author of this thesis concentrates his attention on quantum optical properties of some artificial electromagnetic media, such as quantum coherent atomic vapors (various multilevel electromagnetically induced transparency vapors) and negative refractive index materials, and suggests some possible ways to manipulate wave propagations inside the artificial electromagnetic materials based on quantum coherence and quantum vacuum effects. In Chapters 1 and 2, the author reviews the previous papers on quantum coherence as well as the relevant work such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), atomic population trapping and their various applications. The basic concepts of quantum coherence (atomic phase coherence, quantum interferences within atomic energy levels) and quantum vacuum are introduced, and the theoretical formulations for treating wave propagations in quantum coherent media are presented. In Chapter 3, the author considers three topics on the manipulation of light propagations via quantum coherence and quantum interferences: i) the evolutional optical behaviors (turn-on dynamics) of a four-level N-configuration atomic system is studied and the tunable optical behavior that depends on the intensity ratio of the signal field to the control field is considered. Some typical photonic logic gates (e.g. NOT and NOR gates) are designed based on the tunable four-level optical responses of the N-configuration atomic system; ii) the destructive and constructive quantum interferences between two control transitions (driven by the control fields) in a tripod-type four-level system is suggested. The double-control quantum interferences can be utilized to realize some photonic devices such as the logic-gate devices, e.g., NOT, OR, NOR and EXNOR gates; iii) some new quantum coherent schemes (using EIT and dressed-state mixed-parity transitions) for realizing negative refractive indices are proposed. The most remarkable characteristic (and advantage) of the present scenarios is such that the isotropic left-handed media (with microscopic structure units at the atomic level) in the optical frequency band can be achieved. Quantum vacuum (the ground state of quantized fields) can exhibit many interesting effects. In Chapter 4, we investigate two quantum-vacuum effects in artificial materials: i) the anisotropic distribution of quantum-vacuum momentum density in a moving electromagnetic medium; ii) the angular momentum transfer between quantum vacuum and anisotropic medium. Such quantum-vacuum macroscopic mechanical effects could be detected by current technology, e.g., the so-called fiber optical sensor that can measure motion with nanoscale sensitivity. We expect that these vacuum effects could be utilized to develop sensitive sensor techniques or to design new quantum optical and photonic devices.In Chapter 5, the author suggests some interesting effects due to the combination of quantum coherence and quantum vacuum, i.e., the quantum coherent effects, in which the quantum-vacuum fluctuation field is involved. Two topics are addressed: i) spontaneous emission inhibition due to quantum interference in a three-level system; ii) quantum light-induced guiding potentials for coherent manipulation of atomic matter waves (containing multilevel atoms). These quantum guiding potentials could be utilized to cool and trap atoms, and may be used for the development of new techniques of atom fibers and atom chips, where the coherent manipulation of atomic matter waves is needed.In Chapter 6, we conclude this thesis with some remarks, briefly discuss new work that deserves further consideration in the future, and present a guide to the previously published papers by us.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , ii, 102 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP
Keyword [en]
Quantum coherence, quantum vacuum, electromagnetically induced transparency, negative refractive index, artificial electromagnetic media, electric- and magnetic-dipole transitions, multilevel atomic vapors, transient evolution
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10074ISBN: 978-91-7415-217-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10074DiVA: diva2:207386
Public defence
2009-03-19, Sal D3 och D32, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Backward waves and negative refractive indices in gyrotropic chiral media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Backward waves and negative refractive indices in gyrotropic chiral media
2006 (English)In: Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, ISSN 0305-4470, E-ISSN 1361-6447, Vol. 39, 457-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility of the backward waves and negative refractive indices of the gyrotropic chiralmaterials is studied, and the impedances of the eigenmodes arederived. Since the gyrotropic parameters in the permittivity and permeabilitytensors favour the realization of the negative refractive index in the gyrotropicchiral material, the negatively refracting medium can be achieved even far offthe resonances of the permittivity and permeability. A potential effect of the field quantization in a compact subwavelength cavity resonator containing thegyrotropic chiral material is suggested.

Keyword
low-frequency plasmons; electromagnetic-waves; slab
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10062 (URN)10.1088/0305-4470/39/2/015 (DOI)000235711900019 ()2-s2.0-29144487000 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100809Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Negative refraction and quantum vacuum effects in gyroelectric chiral mediumand anisotropic magnetoelectric material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative refraction and quantum vacuum effects in gyroelectric chiral mediumand anisotropic magnetoelectric material
2006 (English)In: Annalen der Physik, ISSN 0003-3804, E-ISSN 1521-3889, Vol. 15, no 12, 894-910 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some nontrivial effects (negative refraction and quantum vacuum effects) in gyroelectric chiral medium and magnetoelectric material are studied. It is shown that the refractive indices corresponding to some of the eigen modes in the gyroelectric chiral medium and magnetoelectric material may have negative real parts since both the gyroelectric and magnetoelectric parameters can dramatically reduce the refractive indices in certain frequency bands. As an anisotropic electromagnetic environment could be created due to the breaking of universal symmetry of vacuum mode distribution (and hence the noncompensation effect of a pair of counter-propagating vacuum modes arises) inside the magnetoelectric material, the quantum vacuum in such an anisotropic electromagnetic environment may have a nonzero angular momentum. A novel quantum vacuum effect (angular momentum transfer between the quantum vacuum and the anisotropic magnetoelectric material) that may accompany the effect of magnetoelectric negative refraction is suggested. Such a nontrivial effect can be utilized to design sensitive, accurate measurement techniques, e.g., nanoscale-sensitivity sensor.

Keyword
negative refraction; gyroelectric chiral medium; magnetoelectric material; eigen modes; quantum vacuum effect
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10063 (URN)10.1002/andp.200510219 (DOI)000242929400005 ()2-s2.0-33845587000 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100809Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Dimension-sensitive optical responses of electromagnetically induced transparency vapor in a waveguide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimension-sensitive optical responses of electromagnetically induced transparency vapor in a waveguide
2006 (English)In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 74, no 063831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A three-level EIT (electromagnetically induced transparency) vapor is used to manipulate the transparency and absorption properties of the probe light in a waveguide. The most remarkable feature of the present scheme is such that the optical responses resulting from both electromagnetically induced transparency and large spontaneous emission enhancement are very sensitive to the frequency detunings of the probe light as well as to the small changes of the waveguide dimension. The potential applications of the dimension- and dispersion-sensitive EIT responses are discussed, and the sensitivity limits of some waveguide-based sensors, including electric absorption modulator, optical switch, wavelength sensor, and sensitive magnetometer, are analyzed.

Keyword
Electromagnetism; Light absorption; Light emission; Natural frequencies; Sensitivity analysis; Transparency
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10066 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevA.74.063831 (DOI)000243166700171 ()2-s2.0-33846395691 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100809Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Negative permeability in a Lambda-type three-level atomic vapor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative permeability in a Lambda-type three-level atomic vapor
2007 (English)In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 87, 291-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new approach is suggested to realize negative magnetic permeability that follows directly from quantum mechanics. It is shown that a Delta-type three-level atomic system with proper atomic parameters can give rise to striking magnetic responses, which could exhibit negative permeability in an optical frequency band. Both steady and transient behaviors of the magnetic permeability in the atomic vapor are studied. The present negative-permeability vapor could be mixed with a quantum coherent vapor whose electric permittivity is negative. Such a mixed vapor may give an isotropic left-handed vapor medium at the atomic-scale level.

Keyword
low-frequency plasmons; phase-velocity; refraction; media; permittivity; transmission; crystals; index; waves
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10067 (URN)10.1007/s00339-006-3831-6 (DOI)000249502400027 ()2-s2.0-33947211504 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100809Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Local field contribution to the optical properties of multilevel coherent atomic media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local field contribution to the optical properties of multilevel coherent atomic media
2007 (English)In: Annalen der Physik, ISSN 0003-3804, E-ISSN 1521-3889, Vol. 16, no 5-6, 364-378 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The local field contribution to some three- and four-level coherent atomic vapors is considered, and a significant modification to optical properties due to dipole-dipole interaction between neighboring atoms is discussed. It is found that the local field effect can reduce loss of a four-level N-type vapor medium at the resonant frequency in both the steady and transient cases. In order to achieve a left-handed medium with a negative refractive index, a scenario to realize simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability inside a mixed coherent atomic vapor by using quantum coherence effect is suggested. One of the remarkable features of the present scheme is such that it can lead to a controllable manipulation of negative refractive index of an atomic vapor by using external coupling and signal fields. This may be a new scheme to fabricate the negatively refracting materials based on quantum optical approach.

Keyword
local field contribution; multilevel atomic vapors; left-handed medium; negative permittivity and permeability
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10068 (URN)10.1002/andp.200510242 (DOI)000247941000005 ()2-s2.0-34547154329 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
6. Influence of the signal light on the transient optical properties of a four-level EIT medium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of the signal light on the transient optical properties of a four-level EIT medium
2004 (English)In: Physics Letters A, ISSN 0375-9601, E-ISSN 1873-2429, Vol. 330, 487-495 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

General formulae for the transient evolution of the susceptibility (absorption) induced by the quantum interference effect in a four-level N-type EIT medium is presented. The influence of the signal light on the transient susceptibility for the probe beam is studied for two typical cases when the strength of the coupling beam is much greater or less than that of the signal field. An interesting level reciprocity relationship between these two cases is found.

Keyword
electromagnetically induced transparency; four-level EIT system; transient evolution; susceptibility; non-linear absorption
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10069 (URN)10.1016/j.physleta.2004.07.074 (DOI)000224161400013 ()2-s2.0-5444247151 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100810 QC 20110923Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
7. Negative refractive index in gyrotropically magnetoelectric media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative refractive index in gyrotropically magnetoelectric media
2006 (English)In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 73, no 045113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility to realize a negative refractive index in gyrotropically magnetoelectric materials is studied. Since the Tellegen (nonreciprocity) parameter may probably dramatically reduce the refractive indices, the negative refractive indices of a gyrotropic chiral material with positive permittivity and permeability can be achieved. By using the concept of equivalent isotropic medium, the respective negative equivalent permittivity and permeability corresponding to the eigenmodes inside the anisotropic material can be derived. This is a scheme to realize the negative refractive index (and hence the backward wave propagation) in artificial composite materials. Besides this scheme, we consider an alternative way to realize negative refraction by means of a magnetoelectrically anisotropic material.

Keyword
electromagnetic-wave propagation; isotropic chiral media; low-frequency plasmons; left-handed materials; tellegen media; phase-velocity; permittivity; permeability; transmission; dichroism
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10070 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.73.045113 (DOI)000235009700030 ()2-s2.0-33244459826 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
8. Double-control quantum interferences in a four-level atomic system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double-control quantum interferences in a four-level atomic system
2007 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 10, 6484-6493 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new scheme is suggested to manipulate the probe transitions (and hence the optical properties of atomic vapors) via double-control destructive and constructive quantum interferences. The influence of phase coherence between the two control transitions on the probe transition is also studied. The most remarkable feature of the present scheme is that the optical properties (absorption, transparency and dispersion) of an atomic system can be manipulated using this double-control multi-pathway interferences (multiple routes to excitation). It is also shown that a four-level system will exhibit a two-level resonant absorption because the two control levels (driven by the two control fields) form a dark state (and hence a destructive quantum interference occurs between the two control transitions). However, the present four-level system will exhibit electromagnetically induced transparency to the probe field when the three lower levels (including the probe level and the two control levels) form a three-level dark state. The present scenario has potential applications in new devices (e.g. logic gates and sensitive optical switches) and new techniques (e.g. quantum coherent information storage).

Keyword
electromagnetically induced transparency; propagation; line
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10071 (URN)10.1364/OE.15.006484 (DOI)000246474300064 ()2-s2.0-34248676279 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
9. Transient evolutional behaviours of double-control electromagnetically induced transparency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transient evolutional behaviours of double-control electromagnetically induced transparency
2007 (English)In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 9, 374- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evolutional optical behaviours (turn-on dynamics) of a four-level double-control tripod-configuration (electromagnetically induced transparency) system are considered based on the transient solution to the equation of motion of the probability amplitudes of the atomic levels. As the most remarkable property (quantum interference between the two control transitions) will arise in the present tripod-configuration system, the transient evolution of the permittivity in cases of both destructive and constructive quantum interferences is presented. It can be shown that the four-level double-control vapour can become a destructive-interference medium, (exhibiting a two-level resonant absorption) and a constructive-interference medium, (exhibiting transparency to the probe field), respectively, under certain conditions ( related to the ratio of the two control field intensities). The present double-control scenario can be applicable to designs of some new photonic and quantum optical devices such as logic and functional devices (logic gate circuits) and the key component of the technology of quantum coherent information storage.

Keyword
quantum interference; light; system; spectroscopy; spectra; gas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10072 (URN)10.1088/1367-2630/9/10/374 (DOI)000250599000002 ()2-s2.0-35448953300 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
10. Field quantization and vacuum effects in a chiral medium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field quantization and vacuum effects in a chiral medium
2008 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 25, no 11, 1864-1872 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A chiral medium can create an anisotropic electromagnetic environment, which leads to anisotropic quantum-vacuum fields (and observable quantum-vacuum effects). As the noncompensation effect of a pair of counterpropagating (and counterpolarized) vacuum modes will arise in the chiral medium, the physical effects resulting from the quantum-vacuum fluctuation of left- and right-handed polarized modes will no longer be exactly canceled. This may lead to an observable quantum vacuum contribution to the Berry phases of circularly polarized modes in a time-dependent quantum system (e.g., a coiled light propagating in a noncoplanarly curved fiber). A scheme to separate the quantum-vacuum Berry phase of one polarized mode from another by using a chiral-medium fiber is suggested, and the time evolution of the vacuum zero-point energy in a coiled fiber is considered.

Keyword
berry topological phase; spontaneous emission; geometric phase; optical-fiber; spin; photon
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10073 (URN)10.1364/JOSAB.25.001864 (DOI)000261399800015 ()2-s2.0-59949102303 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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