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Some studies on metamaterial transmission lines and their applications
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. (Division of Electromagnetic Theory)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses mostly on investigating different potential applications of meta-transmission line (TL), particularly composite right/left handed (CRLH) TL, and analyzing some new phenomena and applications of meta-TL, mostly left-handed (LH) TL. Realization principle will also be studied.   First, the fundamental electromagnetic properties of propagation in the presence of left-handed material (LHM) are illustrated. The transmission line approach for LHM design is described together with a brief review of the transmission line theory. As a generalized model for LHM TL, CRLH TL provides very unique phase response, such as dual-band operation, bandwidth enhancement, nonlinear dispersion, and the existence of critical frequency with zero phase velocity. Based on these properties, some novel applications of the existing CRLH transmission lines are then given, including a notch filter, a diplexer, a broadband phase shifter, a broadband balun, and a dual band rat-ring coupler. In the design of notch filters and diplexers, CRLH TL shunt stub is utilized to provide high frequency selectivity due to the existence of critical frequency with zero phase velocity. The proposed wideband Wilkinson balun, which comprises of one section of conventional transmission lines and one section of CRLH-TL, is shown to have a 180°±10° bandwidth of 2.12 GHz centered at 1.5 GHz. In the analysis of the dual band rat-ring couplers, a generalized formulation of the requirements about impedances and electrical length of the branches are derived, and as an example, a compact dual-band rat-race coupler is designed utilizing the balanced CRLH TL. Furthermore, a low pass filter is also proposed and designed based on a single (epsilon) negative coplanar waveguide (CPW).Various principles to realize meta-transmission lines are investigated. The main conclusions are listed below:Ÿ         Dual composite right/left handed (D-CRLH) transmission line, which is the dual structure of conventional CRLH TL, shows opposite handedness in the high frequencies and low frequencies with CRLH TL. Meanwhile, in the practical implementation, D-CRLH TL always shows a sharp stopband. A notch filter and a dual-band balun are designed based on D-CRLH TL. Ÿ         The lattice type transmission line (LT-TL) shows the same magnitude response with the conventional right-handed (RH) TL, but a constant phase difference in the phase response over a wide frequency band. A wideband rat-race coupler is proposed as an application of the LT-TL. Ÿ         Finger-shorted interdigital capacitors (FSIDCs) are analyzed and it is shown that FSIDC alone can act as a left-handed transmission line. The value of the reactive elements (inductors and capacitors) in the equivalent circuit model is determined by the dimensions of FSIDC. The relationship between them is analyzed.Later, transmission line loaded with negative-impedance-converted inductors and capacitors is illustrated as the first non-dispersive LH transmission line. The design of a negative series impedance converter is given in detail and a wideband power divider is designed as a potential application of the newly proposed meta-transmission lines in is also given.

The final part of the thesis focuses on the study of microstrip lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (SRRs). An equivalent circuit is made for this structure. The circuit model is verified by the experimental results of cases with different periodic lengths. Thereafter, a meander line split ring resonator (MLSRR) is presented. It shows dual band property and the miniature prototypes of complementary MLSRR loaded transmission lines are fabricated. By comparing the resonance frequencies of complementary MLSRR and multiple SRR, it is shown that the complementary MLSRR is very compact. C-MLSRR is applied in rejecting unnecessary frequencies in the ultra wideband antennas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , vi, 81 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
Keyword [en]
metamaterial, transmission line theory, composite right/left-handed transmission line, diplexer, coupler, balun, interdigital capacitor, split ring resonator
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10126ISBN: 978-91-7415-217-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10126DiVA: diva2:209235
Public defence
2009-04-02, sal F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2009-03-24 Created: 2009-03-24 Last updated: 2013-11-19
List of papers
1. New Transmission Lines of Negative Refractive Index Basedon Periodically Loaded Negative-Impedance-Converted Inductors and Capacitors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Transmission Lines of Negative Refractive Index Basedon Periodically Loaded Negative-Impedance-Converted Inductors and Capacitors
2009 (English)In: European Physical Journal: Applied physics, ISSN 1286-0042, E-ISSN 1286-0050, Vol. 46, no 3269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new class of negative refractive index (NRI) transmission line is proposed. Differential operational amplifiers are used to form the required lumped elements, i.e., negative-impedance-converted (NIC) inductors and capacitors. When the gain of the differential operational amplifiers in the NIC circuits is very large over the entire frequency band, the equivalent material parameters are non-dispersive, and the phase response of the new NRI transmission line can be complimentary to that of a conventional transmission line over the entire frequency band. As an application example, a broadband 1:4 power divider based on the proposed NRI transmission line is studied.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10132 (URN)10.1051/epjap:2008120 (DOI)000265624400012 ()2-s2.0-67549109361 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2009-03-24 Created: 2009-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Novel diplexer using Composite Right/Left-handed transmission lines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel diplexer using Composite Right/Left-handed transmission lines
2008 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 50, no 11, 2970-2973 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new type of notch filter based on a balanced composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line is proposed. Combining such two notch filters with a Y-junction divider, a novel diplexer is designed and studied. The diplexer bus a wide and flat-top pass-band and very good isolation between the two outputs. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results (ire given and they agree with each other.

Keyword
diplexer; composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line; notch filter
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10133 (URN)10.1002/mop.23851 (DOI)000259534800067 ()2-s2.0-53549111630 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2009-03-24 Created: 2009-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Compact Dual-Band Rat-Race Coupler Based on a CompositeRight/Left Handed Transmission Line
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact Dual-Band Rat-Race Coupler Based on a CompositeRight/Left Handed Transmission Line
2009 (English)In: METAMATERIALS AND PLASMONICS: FUNDAMENTALS, MODELLING, APPLICATIONS / [ed] Zouhdi S; Sihvola A; Vinogradov AP, Springer , 2009, 281-287 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A general model for dual band rat-race couplers is presented through an odd-even mode analysis approach. The requirements for the impedances and electrical lengths of the branches are derived. To verify this model, a dual-band rat-race coupler is designed utilizing the balanced composite right/left handed transmission line. The whole structure is much more compact than the existing dual-band rat-race couplers and easy to fabricate. The simulated results are given. Return loss and port isolation of better than -30 dB are achieved at the central frequencies of both operating bands. Furthermore, the requirements of equal amplitude and balanced phase conditions are well fulfilled (within 0.5 dB and 5) over a frequency range of almost 50 and 90 MHz at the two central frequencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2009
Series
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B - Physics and Biophysics, ISSN 1871-465X
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10135 (URN)000263452900021 ()2-s2.0-77949439735 (Scopus ID)978-1-4020-9405-7 (ISBN)
Conference
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Metamaterials for Secure Information and Communication Technologies, Marrakech, MOROCCO, MAY 07-10, 2008
Note

QC 20100720

Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
4. Compact dual-band rejection filter based on complementary meander line split ring resonator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact dual-band rejection filter based on complementary meander line split ring resonator
2009 (English)In: Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, ISSN 1937-6480, Vol. 8, 181-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A general model for dual band rat-race couplers is presented through an odd-even mode analysis approach. The requirements for the impedances and electrical lengths of the branches are derived. To verify this model, a dual-band rat-race coupler is designed utilizing the balanced composite right/left handed transmission line. The whole structure is much more compact than the existing dual-band rat-race couplers and easy to fabricate. The simulated results are given. Return loss and port isolation of better than -30 dB are achieved at the central frequencies of both operating bands. Furthermore, the requirements of equal amplitude and balanced phase conditions are well fulfilled (within 0.5 dB and 5) over a frequency range of almost 50 and 90 MHz at the two central frequencies.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10136 (URN)2-s2.0-70449584696 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
5. Lattice type transmission line of negative refractive index
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lattice type transmission line of negative refractive index
2008 (English)In: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science A, ISSN 1862-1775, Vol. 9, no 2, 289-292 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this letter, we introduce a novel passive transmission line of negative refractive index (i.e., left-handedness) based on identical symmetrical lattice type structures [thus called "lattice type transmission line" (LT-TL)]. The dispersion characteristic and the transmission response of the proposed LT-TL are analyzed. While all the other left-handed passive transmission lines are of high pass, the present passive left-handed transmission line is of low pass. Compared with a conventional transmission line, the LT-TL has a phase shift of 180 degrees in the entire wide pass-band.

Keyword
negative refractive index (NRI), transmission line (TL), symmetrical lattice, low pass
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10137 (URN)10.1631/jzus.A0720086 (DOI)000252925400019 ()2-s2.0-38949203733 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
6. Dual-Band-Rejection Filter Based on SplitRing Resonator (SRR) and Complimentary SRR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual-Band-Rejection Filter Based on SplitRing Resonator (SRR) and Complimentary SRR
2009 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 51, no 10, 2519-2522 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel concept of a compact, low insertion-loss dual-band-rejection filter (DBRF) is proposed, and its equivalent circuit model is given. The filter consists of single split ring resonators (SRRs) on the top of the host microstrip line and Complimentary SRR etched on the back ground plane. The dimensions of the structure are as small as 1.4 cm × 2 cm, while high frequency selectivity is achieved at both band edges due to the presence of two transmission zeros. The filter has an insertion loss of better than 1 dB, a return loss of larger than 10 dB in the passband from 3.3 to 4.0 GHz, and two rejections of greater than 30 dB within 2.5-2.6 and 5.2-5.6 GHz.

Keyword
Complimentary SRR, Dual-band-rejection, Filter, SRR
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10138 (URN)10.1002/mop.24596 (DOI)000268908600074 ()2-s2.0-68349146831 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
7. Equivalent Circuit of Complementary Split-Ring Resonator Loaded Transmission Line
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Equivalent Circuit of Complementary Split-Ring Resonator Loaded Transmission Line
2009 (English)In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 51, no 10, 2432-2434 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, a circuit model is proposed for the complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs) loaded transmission line, and comparisons between the results derived from the equivalent circuit model and the experimental results are given and a good agreement between them over a wide frequency band supports the effectiveness of F the proposed modeling methodology. Both the results show the negative f permittivity at the vicinity of the resonance frequency of CSRR. By comparing the results of different periodic length (i.e., the capacitance per-unit-cell of the host microstrip line is changed), the validity of the equivalent circuit is further confirmed.

Keyword
Circuit model; CSRR; Metamaterial; Microstrip line
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10141 (URN)10.1002/mop.24625 (DOI)000268908600048 ()2-s2.0-68449083435 (Scopus ID)
Note

Uppdaterad från submitted till published 20100720 QC 20100720

Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
8. Left-Handed Transmission Line with Finger-Shorted Interdigital Capacitor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Left-Handed Transmission Line with Finger-Shorted Interdigital Capacitor
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10142 (URN)
Note
QS 20120327Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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