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Cracking in deep beams owing to shear loading. Part 2: Non-linear analysis
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
2008 (English)In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 6, no 5, 381-388 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, analyses based on laboratory tests of ten large deep beams with I-shaped cross-sections loaded to failure are presented. All beams had the same geometry with a shear span-to-depth ratio of 1.25, but differed in the amount of the vertical and horizontal web reinforcement. All beam tests resulted in shear failure, either diagonal tensile failure or shear compressive failure, depending on the amount of reinforcement. The diagonal tensile failure is generally considered to be the most difficult failure to treat numerically. In this study different material models incorporated in commercial numerical analysis tools are studied. Material models based on fracture mechanics with either rotated or fixed crack directions as well as a plasticity-based model are used in the analyses. The analyses show that the plasticity-based model in Abaqus gives good agreement with the experiments regarding crack pattern, load-displacement response and estimated crack widths. The models based on fracture mechanics in Atena and Response tend to give too stiff behaviour in the load-displacement response, but generally give a good estimation of the load capacity. The analyses performed with Atena gave good estimations of the crack pattern, and the models with a fixed crack direction also gave good estimates of the crack width.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Thomas Telford Ltd , 2008. Vol. 6, no 5, 381-388 p.
Keyword [en]
compression-field-theory; plastic-damage model; concret
National Category
Building Technologies
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10145DOI: 10.1680/macr.2008.60.5.381ISI: 000255437700008ScopusID: 2-s2.0-57849122026OAI: diva2:209507

QC 20100730

Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2016-05-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Predicting shear type crack initiation and growth in concrete with non-linear finite element method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting shear type crack initiation and growth in concrete with non-linear finite element method
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]


In this thesis, the possibility to numerically describing the behaviour that signifies shear type cracking in concrete is studied. Different means for describing cracking are evaluated where both methods proposed in design codes based on experiments and advanced finite element analyses with a non-linear material description are evaluated. It is shown that there is a large difference in the estimation of the crack width based on the calculation methods in design codes. The large difference occurs due to several of these methods do not account for shear friction in the crack face.

The finite element method is an important tool for analysing the non-linear behaviour caused by cracking. It is especially of importance when combined with experimental investigations for evaluating load bearing capacity or establishing the structural health. It is shown that non-linear continuum material models can successfully be used to accurately describe the shear type cracking in concrete. A method based on plasticity and damage theory was shown to provide accurate estimations of the behaviour. The methods based on fracture mechanics with or without inclusion of damage theory, overestimated the stiffness after crack initiation considerably. The rotated crack approach of these methods gave less accurate descriptions of the crack pattern and underestimated the crack widths. After verification of the material model, realistic finite element models based on plasticity and damage theory are developed to analyse the cause for cracking in two large concrete structures. The Storfinnforsen hydropower buttress dam is evaluated where the seasonal temperature variation in combination with the water pressure have resulted in cracking. With the numerical model the cause for cracking can be explained and the crack pattern found in-situ is accurately simulated. The model is verified against measurements of variation in crest displacement and crack width with close agreement. The construction process of a balanced cantilever bridge, Gröndal Bridge, is numerically simulated and a rational explanation of the cause for cracking is presented. It is shown that large stresses and micro-cracks develop in the webs during construction, especially after tensioning the continuing tendons in the bottom flange. Further loads from temperature variation cause cracking in the webs that is in close agreement with the cracking found in-situ. The effect of strengthening performed on this bridge is also evaluated where the vertical Dywidag tendons so far seem to have been successful in stopping further crack propagation.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. xiv, 43 p.
Trita-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 97
non-linear finte element analysis, concrete, crack width, crack propagation, shear
National Category
Building Technologies
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10156 (URN)
Public defence
2009-04-17, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26 (KTH), Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
QC 20100730Available from: 2009-03-26 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2011-11-09Bibliographically approved

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