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Measuring and Predicting Transient Diesel Engine Emissions
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 

Due to its impact on human health and the nature surrounding us, diesel engine emissions have been significantly reduced over the last two decades. This reduction has been enforced by the legislating organs around the world that gradually have made the manufacturers transform their engines to today’s complex high-tech products. One of the most challenging areas to meet the legislations is transient operation where the inertia in gas-exchange system makes transition from one load to another problematic.

 

Modern engines have great potential to minimize the problems associated with transient operation. However, their complexity also imposes a great challenge regarding optimization and systematical testing of transient control strategies in an engine test bed could be both expensive and time consuming.

 

The objective of this project is to facilitate optimization of transient control strategies. This should be done by identifying appropriate measurement methods for evaluation of transients and by providing models that can be used to optimize strategies off-line.

 

Measurement methods for evaluation of transients have been tested in several experiments, mainly focusing on emission but also regarding e.g. EGR flow. Applicable instruments for transient emission measurements have been identified and used. However, no method to measure soot emissions cycle resolved has yet been found. Other measurements such as EGR flow and temperatures are believed to have significantly decreased accuracy during transients.

 

A model for prediction of NOx emissions have been used and complemented with a new approach for soot emission predictions that has been developed in this project. The emission models have been shown to be applicable over a wide range of operating conditions with exception for highly premixed combustion. It has also been shown that models developed for steady state conditions can be used for transients operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , 53 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:07
Keyword [en]
Emission modelling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10202OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10202DiVA: diva2:210198
Presentation
2009-03-24, B3, Brinellvägen 23, B3, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-01 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of Techniques for Transient PM-Measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Techniques for Transient PM-Measurements
2008 (English)In: SAE Papers 2008-01-1680, SAE International , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PM-emissions during a load transient have been measured regarding particle mass, exhaust transparency and particle number concentrations in different size ranges. The load transient was from low to medium load at constant speed and was performed with a single cylinder research engine. Mass measurements were conducted with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance . Exhaust transparency was measured with an Opacimeter. Particle Number Concentrations were measured with two different Condensation Particle Counters , CPCs, where one of them was equipped with a Particle Size Selector , PSS, in order to distinguish accumulation mode particles from nucleation mode. An Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer , EEPS, was also used in parallel with the CPCs and provided a full size distribution. For dilution, a rotating disc diluter and a two stage ejector diluter was used. In total two stages of hot dilution and one unheated. It was found that all instruments, except the TEOM, had acceptable time resolution for dynamic measurements with the dilution and acquisition setup used in this experiment. In most aspects, the measurements from the different instruments were consistent and the discrepancies could be explained by their measuring principles. In some cases, simultaneous use of different instruments could provide a more detailed description of the emitted PM. It was also concluded that the rotating disc diluter, with some reservations, could be used for transient measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2008
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25897 (URN)10.4271/2008-01-1680 (DOI)2-s2.0-84870546807 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2008 SAE International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Congress, June 2008, Shanghai, CHINA
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved
2. Predictions and Measurements of Transient NO Emissions for a Two-stage Turbocharged HD Diesel Engine with EGR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictions and Measurements of Transient NO Emissions for a Two-stage Turbocharged HD Diesel Engine with EGR
2008 (English)In: Proceedings THIESEL 2008 Conference on Thermo-and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25898 (URN)
Conference
Thiesel 2008 Conference on Thermo- and Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines. Valencia, Spain. September 2008
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved
3. Fast Physical Prediction of NO and Soot in Diesel Engines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Physical Prediction of NO and Soot in Diesel Engines
2009 (English)In: SAE Papers 2009-01-1121, SAE International , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A clear trend in engine development is that the engines are becoming more and more complex both regarding components and component-systems as well as controlling them. These complex engines have great potential to minimize emissions but they also have a great number of combinations of setting. Systematic testing to find these optimum settings is getting more and more challenging. A possible remedy is to roughly optimize these settings offline with predictive models and then only perform the fine tuning in the engine test bed. To be able to do so, two things are needed; firstly a engine model that will predict how the different setting affect engine performance and secondly how the engine performance affects the emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2009
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25899 (URN)10.4271/2009-01-1121 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877177684 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE World Congress & Exhibition, April 2009, Detroit, MI, USA
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved
4. Fast Physical Emission Predictions for Off-line Calibration of Transient Control Strategies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Physical Emission Predictions for Off-line Calibration of Transient Control Strategies
2009 (English)In: SAE Papers 2009-01-1778, SAE International , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A clear trend in engine development is that the engines are becoming more and more complex both regarding components and component-systems as well as controlling them. These complex engines have great potential to minimize emissions but they also have a great number of combinations of setting. Systematic testing to find these optimum settings is getting more and more challenging. A possible remedy is to roughly optimize these settings offline with predictive models and then only perform the fine tuning in the engine test bed. To be able to do so, two things are needed; firstly a engine model that will predict how the different setting affect engine performance and secondly how the engine performance affects the emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2009
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25900 (URN)10.4271/2009-01-1778 (DOI)2-s2.0-79959568826 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, June 2009, Florence, Italy
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved

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