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Recycling Filter Substrates used for Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater as Soil Amendments
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studied the viability of recycling filter substrates as soil amendments after being used in on-site systems for phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater. Focus was put on the materials Filtra P and Polonite, which are commercial products used in compact filters in Sweden. A prerequisite for this choice was to review filter materials and P sorption capacity. The filter substrates (Filtra P, Polonite and wollastonite tailings) were recycled from laboratory infiltration columns as soil amendments to a neutral agricultural soil and to an acid meadow soil to study their impacts on soil properties and yield of barley and ryegrass. The amendments tended to improve the yield and showed a liming effect, significantly increasing soil pH and the availability of P. In another experiment, samples of Filtra P and Polonite were equilibrated in batch experiments with the two soils in order to study the P dynamics in the soil-substrate system.  Batch equilibrations confirmed the liming potential of Filtra P and Polonite and showed that improved P availability in soils was strongly dependent on substrate P concentration, phase of sorbed P, and soil type. Finally, samples of Polonite used for household wastewater treatment were recycled as soil amendments to a mountain meadow and to an agricultural field for wheat cropping. The liming effect of Polonite was confirmed under field conditions and the results were similar to those of lime for the mountain meadow soil. However, the results were quite different for the agricultural field, where Polonite did not affect soil pH or any other chemical and physical soil properties investigated and had no impact on wheat yield and quality. The results from field experiments suggested that Polonite can be safely recycled to meadows and cropping fields at rates of 5-10 ton ha-1 but long-term studies are needed to forecast the effects of accumulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , viii, 35 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1049
Keyword [en]
Compact filter; Filtra P; Phosphorus recycling; Polonite; Soil amendment; Sorption isotherms
National Category
Soil Science Inorganic Chemistry Agricultural Science Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10204ISBN: 978-91-7415-289-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10204DiVA: diva2:210359
Public defence
2009-05-15, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100708Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-04-01 Last updated: 2011-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Phosphorus sorption capacity of filter materials used for on-site wastewater treatment determined in batch experiments – a comparative study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus sorption capacity of filter materials used for on-site wastewater treatment determined in batch experiments – a comparative study
2009 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, Vol. 38, 381-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing numbers of filter materials have been proposed as suitable media for P removal in on-site wastewater treatment systems. The phosphorus sorption capacity (PSC) of the material can be estimated in batch experiments and is commonly used as the criterion for material selection. However, there is no standard procedure and batch experimental parameters are arbitrarily established, thus leading to difficulties in comparing the results. The main parameters affecting the batch adsorption system are the form and amount of material, material-to-solution ratio, nature, pH and initial concentration of P solution, contact time, agitation, and temperature. This paper critically reviews a number of relevant studies that used batch experiments to estimate the PSC of different filter materials. The nature and form [if the materials vary significantly and there is broad variation in the batch experimental parameters set in the selected studies. Analysis of the data from selected studies showed a relationship between particle size or pH of the material and its PSC. The initial P concentration of the solution and the material-to-solution ratio in the batch system were found to be correlated with the estimated PSC suggesting that batch parameters have a great influence on the results. Based on the analysis of the selected studies, the difficulties Of using batch experiments are outlined, recommendations for batch experiment procedure ate suggested and a classification system for filter materials according to their PSC. and particle size is presented.

Keyword
CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEMS; BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS; PHOSPHATE REMOVAL; FLY-ASH; AQUEOUS-SOLUTION; RETENTION CAPACITY; CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE; BY-PRODUCTS; REED BEDS; ADSORPTION
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10193 (URN)10.2134/jeq2008.0192 (DOI)000264013700003 ()2-s2.0-63449126995 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100708Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Fertilizer potential of calcium-rich substrates used for phosphorus removal from wastewater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fertilizer potential of calcium-rich substrates used for phosphorus removal from wastewater
2007 (English)In: Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, ISSN 1230-1485, Vol. 16, no 6, 817-822 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phosphorus (P) in wastewater is an important source of pollution, but properly managed, it can become a resource. Reactive filter media with a high affinity for P are promising in reducing P from effluents allowing nutrient recycling. In this study, three calcium-rich substrates (Filtra P, Polonite, wollastonite) with ability to remove P from wastewater have been saturated with P and tested as potential fertilizers in a pot experiment. Polonite had a relatively higher P content than Filtra P and wollastonite after saturation. All three materials tended to improve the yield of barley compared with the control treatment. Polonite induced the highest yield per unit of amendment from all three materials due to its higher P content, which could be shown in a higher ammonium lactate (AL)-extractable P in soil after harvesting. The application of the substrates slightly increased soil pH and decreased the hydrolytic acidity.

Keyword
barley; Filtra P; Polonite; pot experiment; wollastonite
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10194 (URN)000251599200003 ()2-s2.0-37349067370 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100708

Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2014-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. Effect of reactive substrates used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on the feritlity of acid soils
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of reactive substrates used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on the feritlity of acid soils
2008 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 10, 4308-4314 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reactive substrates used in filter systems can reduce phosphorus (P) pollution and, once saturated with P, may be recycled in agriculture. These substrates are usually calcium carbonate derivates with high pH values, which may be particularly beneficial for acid soils. Three reactive substrates (Filtra P, Polonite and wollastonite) saturated with P were used as amendments to an acid soil in a pot experiment. Substrate amendments tended to improve ryegrass yield and P uptake compared with control and potassium phosphate treatments. Polonite produced the highest yield/amendment ratio, while Polonite and Filtra P significantly increased the concentrations of P and Ca in the ryegrass. Addition of all three substrates increased the pH, AL-extractable P and cation exchange capacity of soils during the experiment. These substrates can therefore be applied to acid soils in order to recycle P and improve soil properties.

Keyword
Fertilizer, Filtra P, Phosphorus recycling, Polonite, Pot experiment, Ryegrass, Wollastonite
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7348 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2007.08.037 (DOI)000255109900044 ()2-s2.0-40749120107 (Scopus ID)
Note
Uppdaterad från submitted till published: 20101103. QC 20101103Available from: 2007-06-20 Created: 2007-06-20 Last updated: 2011-10-18Bibliographically approved
4. Phosphorus sorption properties of soils amended with recycled wastewater filter substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus sorption properties of soils amended with recycled wastewater filter substrates
2009 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10196 (URN)
Note
QS 20120315Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2012-03-15Bibliographically approved
5. Effect of Polonite used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on soil properties and fertility of a mountain meadow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Polonite used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on soil properties and fertility of a mountain meadow
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 7, 2147-2152 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reactive filter materials used for phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater can be disposed of as soil amendments after treatment, thus recycling P and other macro- and micro-nutrients to plants. In addition, materials with a high pH and Ca content, such as Polonite, are potential soil conditioners which, can be particularly beneficial for acid soils. Polonite previously used for on-site wastewater treatment was applied as a soil amendment to a mountain meadow. The amendment significantly increased soil pH and decreased the hydrolytic acidity, thus reducing Al toxicity risks. The effects were comparable to those of liming. No difference in yield and P uptake by meadow plants was observed. The uptake of metals was lower for amended soils, especially the uptake of Mn. Using Polonite after wastewater treatment as a soil amendment is thus a viable disposal alternative that can replace liming, when necessary, being capable of recycling P and other nutrients to meadow plants.

Keyword
Amendment; Fertilizer; Liming; Polonite; Yield
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10197 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2009.02.007 (DOI)000266350800023 ()2-s2.0-67349219363 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100708. Uppdaterad från In press till Published (20100909)Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2011-10-18Bibliographically approved
6. Recycling Polonite used for on-site wastewater treatment as a soil amendment to a wheat cropping field
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling Polonite used for on-site wastewater treatment as a soil amendment to a wheat cropping field
2009 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10198 (URN)
Note
QS 20120315Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2012-03-21Bibliographically approved

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