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On-track tests with active lateral secondary suspension: a measure to improve ride comfort
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8237-5847
2008 (English)In: ZEV Rail Glasers Annalen, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 132, no 11-12, 469-477 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At increased rail vehicle speed it may be difficult to maintain acceptable passenger ride comfort with conventional passive secondary suspension. This paper presents the development of an active secondary suspension that provides good ride comfort improvements, but still at an acceptable cost level to enable future implementation. On-track tests have been performed with a two-car Regina train, using electro-hydraulic actuators together with sky-hook damping control and a Hold-Off-Device function to actively control the secondary suspension. The evaluated measurement results show that the active suspension system significantly reduces the lateral dynamic carbody motions and the lateral quasi-static displacements between carbody and bogies in curves, which improves the ride comfort and allows higher speeds, particularly in curves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 132, no 11-12, 469-477 p.
Keyword [en]
Suspensions (components), Vehicle suspensions
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10442Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-58049159501OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10442DiVA: diva2:217404
Note
QC 20101027Available from: 2009-05-14 Created: 2009-05-14 Last updated: 2011-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Active Lateral Secondary Suspension in a High-Speed Train to Improve Ride Comfort
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Lateral Secondary Suspension in a High-Speed Train to Improve Ride Comfort
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Active secondary suspension in trains has been studied for a number of years, showing promising improvements in ride comfort. However, due to relatively high implementation and maintenance costs, active technology is not being used in service operation to a large extent. The objective of this study is to develop an active lateral secondary suspension concept that offers good ride comfort improvements and enables centring of the carbody above the bogies when negotiating curves at unbalanced speed. Simultaneously, the active suspension concept should be a cost-effective solution for future series production. The thesis consists of an introductory part and three appended papers.

The introductory part describes the concept of active secondary suspension together with different actuator types and control methods. Further, the present simulation model and applied comfort evaluation methods are presented. The introductory part also comprises a summary of the appended papers, an evaluation of track forces and suggestions for further work.

Paper A presents the initial development of an active lateral secondary suspension concept based on sky-hook damping in order to improve vehicle dynamic performance, particularly on straight tracks. Furthermore, a Hold-Off-Device (HOD) function has been included in the suspension concept in order to centre the carbody above the bogies in curves and hence avoid bumpstop contact. Preparatory simulations as well as the subsequent on-track tests in the summer of 2007 showed that the active suspension provides improved passenger ride comfort and has significant potential to be a cost-effective solution for future implementation.

In Paper B, measurement results from on-track tests performed in 2008 are presented. The active secondary suspension concept was slightly modified compared to the one presented in the first paper. One modification was the implementation of a gyroscope in order to enable detection of transition curves and to switch off the dynamic damping in these sections. Ride comfort in the actively suspended carbody was significantly improved compared to that in the passively suspended car. The satisfactory results led to implementation of the active suspension system in long-term tests in service operation in the beginning of 2009.

In Paper C, a quarter-car model in MATLAB has been used to investigate a more advanced control algorithm: H instead of sky-hook. H control provides more flexibility in the design process due to the possibility to control several parameters. In particular, this is done by applying weight functions to selected signals in the system. When comparing the two control strategies through simulations, the results show that H control generates similar carbody accelerations at the same control force as sky-hook; however, the relative displacement displacement is somewhat lower.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. x, 42 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2009:22
Keyword
railway, active suspension, ride comfort, sky-hook, Hinf, multi-body simulations, on-track tests
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10432 (URN)978-91-7415-300-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-06-03, S40, Teknikringen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-14 Created: 2009-05-13 Last updated: 2010-10-27Bibliographically approved
2. On Active Secondary Suspension in Rail Vehicles to Improve Ride Comfort
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Active Secondary Suspension in Rail Vehicles to Improve Ride Comfort
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One way to make rail vehicles a competitive means of transportation is to increase running speed. However, higher speeds usually generate increased forces and accelerations on the vehicle, which have a negative effect on ride comfort. With conventional passive suspension, it may be difficult to maintain acceptable passenger comfort. Therefore, active technology in the secondary suspension can be implemented to improve, or at least maintain, ride comfort at increased vehicle speeds or when track conditions are unfavourable.

This thesis describes the development of an active secondary suspension concept to improve ride comfort in a high-speed train. Firstly, an active lateral secondary suspension system (ALS) was developed, including dynamic control of the lateral and yaw modes of the carbody. Furthermore, quasi-static lateral carbody control was included in the suspension system in order to laterally centre the carbody above the bogies in curves at high track plane acceleration and hence to avoid bumpstop contact. By means of simulations and on-track tests, it is shown that the ALS system can offer significant lateral ride comfort improvements compared to a passive system.

Two different control strategies have been studied—the relatively simple sky-hook damping and the multi-variable H∞ control—using first a quarter-car and then a full-scale vehicle model. Simulation results show that significant ride comfort improvements can be achieved with both strategies compared to a passive system. Moreover, H∞ control in combination with the carbody centring device is better at reducing the relative lateral displacement in transition curves compared to sky-hook damping.

Secondly, an active vertical secondary suspension system (AVS) was developed, using simulations. Dynamic control of the vertical and roll modes of the carbody, together with quasi-static roll control of the carbody, show significant vertical ride comfort improvements and allow higher speeds in curves. Further, the AVS system compensates for negative ride comfort effects if the structural stiffness of the carbody is reduced and if the vertical air spring stiffness is increased.

Finally, the two active suspension systems (ALS and AVS) were combined in simulations. The results show that both lateral and vertical ride comfort is improved with the active suspension concept at a vehicle speed of 250 km/h, compared to the passive system at 200 km/h. Further, active suspension in one direction does not affect the other direction. The ALS system has been included in two recent orders comprising more than 800 cars.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 36 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2011:79
Keyword
rail vehicle, active secondary suspension, ride comfort, sky-hook damping, H∞ control, multi-body simulations, on-track tests
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49880 (URN)978-91-7501-155-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-16, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Gröna Tåget
Note
QC 20111205Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2012-03-21Bibliographically approved

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