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SBR-technology - use and potential applications for treatment of cold wastewater
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biological nutrient removal is used as an indicator of SBR performance at nine different SBRplants operated for a long period at low water temperatures (5 – 10oC). Typically needed aeratedSRT (Solids Residence Time) for complete nitrification is found to be in the range of 6 – 10 days.Biological phosphorus removal has been found to take place at 5oC.

The specific nitrification and denitrification rates (g N/kg VSS/h) have been found to besubstantially higher than those found in design recommendations. At temperatures < 10 oC thenitrification rates have been found up to 4 g Nox/kg VSS/h.

It has also been possible to establish a relation between the COD/N ratio and the nitrificationrate, showing that the rate increases to high rates when the ratio decreases.

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal has been demonstrated at two different plants even atlow water temperatures 5 – 7 oC.

Efficient biological nitrogen removal and phosphorus removal has been demonstrated at bothlow water temperatures and in presence of very high Chromium concentrations in inlet water, upto 20 mg Cr/l.

The plants operated with a short fill time in comparison with the total cycle time for the SBRprocess have all demonstrated good sludge settling properties, suggesting that the SBR processmay incorporate a good sludge selection performance.

Once a flexible operation strategy has been installed (in most cases through PLC systems) it hasbeen possible to meet load variations to maintain good treatment results. This has been found tobe true for most of the plants included in the thesis.

Finally, a modified way to assess the energy efficiency for the system is analysed and suggested.Instead of using the traditional ratio kWh/kg BODremoved the use of kWh/kg OCPremoved as a basisfor energy efficiency is used as a far more relevant efficiency measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , xviii, 63 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1050
Keyword [en]
Intermittent operation, Water temperature, nitrogen, phosphorus, SBR, reaction rates
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10550ISBN: 978-91-7514-341-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10550DiVA: diva2:219078
Public defence
2009-06-03, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2009-05-26 Created: 2009-05-26 Last updated: 2010-08-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A systematic approach to optimal upgrading of water and waste water treatment plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systematic approach to optimal upgrading of water and waste water treatment plants
1998 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 37, no 9, 9-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most of the future works in water and waste water treatment systems will involve the upgrading of existing facilities, for better performance and/or higher capacity. For the efficient implementation of any project, an upgrading strategy should be used, based on careful studies of the local conditions and the defined objectives to be reached. The paper presents a systematic approach to upgrading with emphasis on treatment plant extension, without investing in large volumes, by more efficient use of existing facilities, illustrated by some cases. The importance of real competition in obtaining a cost-effective implementation is stressed.

Keyword
upgrading strategy, water treatment, waste water treatment, cost aspects, cases stories, nitrogen removal
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14319 (URN)10.1016/S0273-1223(98)00265-0 (DOI)000075263400003 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Biological phosphorus removal at temperatures from 3-degrees-c to 10-degrees-c - a full-scale study of a sequencing batch reactor unit
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biological phosphorus removal at temperatures from 3-degrees-c to 10-degrees-c - a full-scale study of a sequencing batch reactor unit
1994 (English)In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 21, no 1, 81-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low temperature biological phosphorus removal technology was tested at a small village wastewater treatment plant near the Arctic circle. An aeration basin in a conventional activated sludge step was retrofitted to a sequencing batch reactor with a maximum volume of approximately 27 m3. The study period was November 1989 to June 1991. The wastewater temperature varied between 3 and 10-degrees-C during one full year and was below 5-degrees-C during approximately 240 days of the year. A total sequencing batch reactor cycle time of 6-12 hours produced a phosphorus reduction of 70-80%. During the same time, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) reductions varied between 70% and 90%. These reductions were achieved at supernatant suspended solid concentrations of 20-30 mg/L. Effluent soluble phosphorus concentrations were usually lower than 1.0 mg/L at water temperatures down to 5-degrees-C. At 4-degrees-C, a sharp increase to greater than 2.0 mg/L was evident. Supernatant soluble BOD7 was less than 8 mg/L and was found to be independent of temperature.

Keyword
biological waste-water phosphorus removal, sequencing batch reactor, cold climate
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14320 (URN)A1994NC25500008 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Performance of an SBR-pla nt for advanced nutrient removal, using septic sludge as a carbon source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of an SBR-pla nt for advanced nutrient removal, using septic sludge as a carbon source
2001 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 43, no 3, 131-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Tjustvik SBR-plant outside Stockholm, Sweden has been in operation for four years. The plant has to meet stringent effluent standards, BOD7 < 10 PPM, total N < 15 PPM and total P < 0.3 PPM. The plant is a typical two reactor SBR-plant, sized for about 15 000 inhabitants, During the first year of operation there were difficulties in meeting the P consent level. The difficulties were linked to a deficit of available organic carbon and a secondary phosphorus release. The problem was solved with the addition of septic sludge, in an amount equivalent to about 10,000 to 15,000 inhabitants with respect to the BOD-load. The altered operation resulted in a very stable and good effluent quality from the plant that has been maintained ever since, giving typical discharge levels as follows: BOD7, < 3 mg/l; Total-P, < 0.15 mg/l; Total-N, < 7 mg/l; NH4-N,< 1 mg/l. The change of process saved the community from a major investment in a separate treatment facility for the septic sludge. The stabilisation degree of the waste activated sludge is sufficient to by pass the anaerobic digestion for the time being, In the beginning, the SBR-process stability played an unwanted role during start up as it maintained a secondary phosphorus release for a considerable time. Later the process stability became an asset as the varying loads from the septic sludge addition were handled with very good results.

Keyword
SBR, nitrogen removal, phosphorus removal, septic sludge, carbon source
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14321 (URN)000167944600018 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Nitrogen removal and heavy metals in leachate treatment using SBR technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen removal and heavy metals in leachate treatment using SBR technology
2010 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 174, no 1-3, 679-686 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) is today an accepted and well proven model. The results of SBR performance on nitrogen removal have encouraged consultants, engineering companies and landfill operators to develop and build full scale SBR plants at a number of sites in Sweden. Two of these plants, Isatra and Norsa, have been studied closely. The Norsa plant treats leachate at a controlled water temperature, while the Isatra plant is exposed to temperature variation throughout the year. Both plants have very well proven nitrogen removal capacities, although winter conditions have an adverse impact on their performance. Typical nitrification efficiency is close to 100%, while the total nitrogen removal is about 90-95% under stable operation conditions. A good relationship between the nitrogen load and the nitrification rate has been observed at the Norsa SBR plant. The heavy metal content in the leachate is very low thanks to anaerobic precipitation inside the landfill into metal sulphides. The heavy metal content in the biological sludge is consequently also very low.

Keyword
Nitrogen removal, Nitrification rate, Heavy metal content, SBR, Leachate
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14322 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.104 (DOI)000273984000095 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Landfill leachate, generation, composition, and some findings from leachate treatment at Swedish plants.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill leachate, generation, composition, and some findings from leachate treatment at Swedish plants.
2007 (English)In: Vann, ISSN 0042-2592, Vol. 2, 172-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14323 (URN)
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. Plant performance of an Sequencing Batch Reactor in Poland, operated with high Chromium load, reaching advanced nutrient removal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plant performance of an Sequencing Batch Reactor in Poland, operated with high Chromium load, reaching advanced nutrient removal
2009 (English)In: Water Practice & Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 4, no 1, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents performance experiences from the operation of a large SBRfacility in Nowy Targ, Poland. The plant has been in operation since 1995, and a number ofinvestigations have contributed to the evaluation of the operating conditions at the NowyTarg plant. The plant was designed for treating municipal and industrial wastewater fromabout 150,000 person equivalents. The plant receives chromium rich wastewater from almost400 small and medium-sized tanneries in the area. Although the Cr concentration sometimesexceeds 20 ppm in the combined incoming wastewater, the nutrient removal as well asorganic removal has proven to be very good. The possible effect of Cr acting as a precipitantfor phosphorus is also addressed. The influence of water temperature on the nitrogenperformance is clearly demonstrated by the results. The prevailing low water temperaturehas affected but not inhibited the nitrogen removal. The phosphorus removal as found in thisinvestigation suggests an advanced biological removal; however the impact of a possibleprecipitation by Cr is addressed.

Keyword
Chromium, Nitrogen, Nitrogen removal, Phosphorus, Phosphorus removal, SBR.
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14324 (URN)
Note

QC 20100803

Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
7. Long time experiences from four SBR-plants operated with cold wastewater: comparisons and synthesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long time experiences from four SBR-plants operated with cold wastewater: comparisons and synthesis
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th IWA Specialised Conference on Sequencing Batch Reactor Technology, 2008, 11-18 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14326 (URN)
Conference
SBR4. 4th Sequencing Batch Reactor Conference. Rome. April 7-10 2008
Note
QC 20100803. Updated from submitted to published, 20120315Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2012-03-15Bibliographically approved
8. Nitrogen removal efficiency and nitrification rates at the Sequencing Batch Reactor in Nowy Targ, Poland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen removal efficiency and nitrification rates at the Sequencing Batch Reactor in Nowy Targ, Poland.
2008 (English)In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 64, no 2, 121-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR) is today an accepted and wellproven model. The Nowy Targ SBR plant has been in operation for 15 years, and comprehensive performancedata are available for assessment. This paper focuses on the 2005 year operation, characterised by high organicand nitrogen loading and also very high chromium loads. The available performance data allows an analysis ofboth nitrification rates and denitrification rates, along with an assessment of the temperature influence. Theresults reveal a high nitrification rate even at temperatures in the range 6–10°C, close to 2 g N/kg VSS/h, a clearrelation between nitrogen loading and nitrification as well as denitrification. Furthermore a relation betweenthe COD/N- ratio and the nitrification rate is found: the rate increases with decreasing COD/N-ratio.

Keyword
Nitrogen, Nitrogen removal, Nitrification rate, Denitrification rate, SBR
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14327 (URN)
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2010-08-03Bibliographically approved
9. Development of SBR Technology - A review of the original activated sludge configuration.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of SBR Technology - A review of the original activated sludge configuration.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14328 (URN)
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2010-08-03Bibliographically approved

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  • harvard1
  • ieee
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  • nn-NO
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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