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Conducted and Radiated Electromagnetic Interference in Modern Electrified Railways with Emphasis on Pantograph Arcing
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Arcing from the pantograph, a commonly observed phenomenon, is knownto be a major source of wideband electromagnetic emission which is more pronounced during the winter. Experience within the railway industry has shown that this source of EMI and its characteristics need to be understood thoroughly for solving the associated EMI issues in the desired fashion. This thesis investigates EMI generation from pantograph arcing. The First phase of the work is based on experimental investigations and analyses conducted on a test setup which closely resembles pantographcontact wire interaction. Different possible mechanisms of the pantograph arcing and inuencing parameters like speed of the train, loadcurrent, voltage level, power factor etc. are identified. It was found that pantograph arcing is a polarity dependent phenomenon. It generates transients and asymmetrically distorted voltage and current waveforms. This in turn generates a net DC component and odd and even harmonics(up to order 10 was measured). In the second phase, different characteristics of these high frequency emission and inuencing parameters have been analyzed and presented. Presence of wideband high frequency components in the range from afew ten kHz to a few hundred MHz at measured current, electric and magnetic elds were confirmed. 10-90 % risetimes for current was measured from 5 ns to typically around 25 ns, whereas for electric field this is ranged from fraction of onens to 25 ns. Although there are variations, the rise times of the measuredtime domain waveform of current, electric and magnetic seems to have correlation with the higher frequency components. It was understood that major high frequency components measured could be from: (a) thearcing itself, (b) radiation from connected cables/wires, (c) resonance inthe associated circuits and (d) associated digital circuitry.This wideband electromagnetic emission causes interference in traction power, signalling and train control systems. Their possible propagation paths and consequences on different equipments are also elaborated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , xvi, 163 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2009:029
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10574ISBN: 978-91-7415-345-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10574DiVA: diva2:219423
Public defence
2009-06-01, sal F3, KTH, Lindstedtv 26, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2012-03-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility challenges in European Rail Traffic Management System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An overview of electromagnetic compatibility challenges in European Rail Traffic Management System
2008 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 16, no 5, 515-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Europe, the railway industry is rapidly getting transformed from traditional mode of public transportation to a very fast, more reliable, long distance and cross country operation. A new concept, called European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is originated to make this transition smooth, reliable and compatible among different countries. Electromagnetic interference and compatibility (EMC) issues play a major role on the overall system design and performance of this. In this paper, an overview of the operational principles and major components of ERTMS and other modern railway systems are discussed in detail with an emphasis on possible EMC issues. Radiated and conducted interferences originated from different sources and their consequences on different subsystems and components are discussed and analyzed.

Keyword
rail transportation, rail transportation communication, European Rail Traffic Management System, electromagnetic interference, electromagnetic compatibility, arc discharges
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14311 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2007.11.001 (DOI)000258344800001 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Consequences of DC components in AC railways and their elimination.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consequences of DC components in AC railways and their elimination.
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of Railway Engineering 2007, London, UK., Jun. 2007, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14312 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
Railway Engineering
Note

QC 20100803

Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
3. Understanding Pantograph Arcing in Electrified Railways - Influence of Various Parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Pantograph Arcing in Electrified Railways - Influence of Various Parameters
Show others...
2008 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility Detroit, MI, AUG 18-22, 2008, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, 592-597 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The most common and yet unavoidable EMC problems with electrified railways are due to pantograph arcing. This distorts the waveform of the supply voltage and current, can generates transients during the zero crossings of the current and can cause interference with the traction power and signalling system. Pantograph arcing is a complex phenomenon and depends on speed of the train, current, presence of inductance etc. In a sliding contact like pantograph and contact wire, the am root moves across both electrodes because of the relative motion between them. In this paper, we will present an experimental analyses of the are root movement and influence of different parameters on it using a laboratory setup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2008
Series
2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOLS 1-3
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14314 (URN)000263416300110 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2010-08-03Bibliographically approved
4. Pantograph Arcing in Electrified Railways-Mechanism and Influence of Various Parameters-Part I: With DC Traction Power Supply
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pantograph Arcing in Electrified Railways-Mechanism and Influence of Various Parameters-Part I: With DC Traction Power Supply
2009 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 24, no 4, 1931-1939 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pantograph arcing is a common phenomenon in electrified railway systems. This is also a source of broadband-conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) for vehicle as well as traction power and signaling systems. In this paper and the companion paper, experimental analyses of pantograph arcing phenomena are presented for dc and ac feeding systems, respectively. Influences of different parameters on dc traction system, such as supply-voltage polarity, relative motion between pantograph and overhead contact wire, namely, forward motion along the track (longitudinal), and lateral sliding motion of the pantograph (zigzag) are presented here. From the voltage and current waveforms of the test runs, it is shown that pantograph arcing is a polarity-dependent phenomenon. For the positive-fed overhead traction system, where pantograph is cathode, the supply interruptions due to zigzag motion are comparatively less compared to negatively fed traction systems. As a result, the transients, due to pantograph arcing, are more frequent in negatively fed traction systems. It is found that the arc root movement along the electrode surfaces (pantograph-contact wire) is governed by the relative motion and polarity of the electrodes. The analyses presented in this paper also form a foundation to understand the pantograph arcing process and the corresponding influential parameters with the ac supply presented in the companion paper. The findings presented in this paper could be beneficial for coming up with appropriate mitigation techniques from the EMI due to pantograph arcing in dc-fed traction systems.

Keyword
Arc discharges, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), rail transportation, rail-transportation power systems
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Control Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14315 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2021035 (DOI)000270139900023 ()2-s2.0-70350274262 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100803

Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Pantograph Arcing in Electrified Railways-Mechanism and Influence of Various Parameters-Part II: With AC Traction Power Supply
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pantograph Arcing in Electrified Railways-Mechanism and Influence of Various Parameters-Part II: With AC Traction Power Supply
2009 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 24, no 4, 1940-1950 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pantograph arcing with ac supply generates transients, cause asymmetries and distortion in supply voltage and current waveforms and can damage the pantograph and the overhead contact line. The asymmetry generates a net dc component and harmonics, which propagate within the traction power and signalling system and causes electromagnetic interference. Unlike dc-fed systems (Part I), the arcing in ac supply is complex because of the zero crossing of currents and voltages. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of sliding contact and arcing between pantograph-contact wire using the experimental setup described in Part I. Influences of various parameters and test conditions on arcing phenomenon and their signature patterns on the supply voltage and current waveforms are presented. It is shown how the arcing mechanism and corresponding asymmetry in the voltage and current waveforms are governed by line speed, current, supply voltage, inductive load, and pantograph material. The asymmetry in the current waveform is mainly due to the difference in the duration of successive zero-current regions and uneven distortion of the waveshapes. This, in turn, creates the asymmetry in the voltage waveform. The findings presented in this paper could be beneficial for coming up with appropriate mitigation techniques from the electromagnetic interference due to pantograph arcing in ac traction systems.

Keyword
Arc discharges, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), rail transportation, rail-transportation power systems
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Control Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14316 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2021036 (DOI)000270139900024 ()2-s2.0-70350286219 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100803

Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. DC Component From Pantograph Arcing in AC Traction System-Influencing Parameters, Impact, and Mitigation Techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DC Component From Pantograph Arcing in AC Traction System-Influencing Parameters, Impact, and Mitigation Techniques
2011 (English)In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 53, no 1, 18-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pantograph arcing in ac traction system generates transients, and causes asymmetries and distortion in supply voltage and current waveforms. These asymmetric voltage and current lead to a net dc component and harmonics that propagate within the traction power and signalling system and cause electromagnetic interference. This problem is enhanced during winter because of the layer of ice/snow on the overhead contact wire. The sliding contact becomes poor and a visible arc moves along with the pantograph. In this paper, it is shown how different parameters like traction current, line speed, power factor, and supply voltage influence the arcing, its characteristics, and the dc components. It is shown that the dc current component increases with increasing train speed and traction current, and reduces at a lower power factor. It is also discussed how the presence of an ice layer influences the arcing and the dc components. It is found that running the trains below the normal operating power factors is an effective choice to mitigate this problem. The findings presented in this paper could be beneficial to estimate the probable limit of the dc component at the planning stage so that proper precautions can be taken at the design stage itself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Arc discharges, electromagnetic compatibility, electromagnetic interference, rail transportation, rail transportation power systems
National Category
Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14318 (URN)10.1109/TEMC.2010.2045159 (DOI)000287407300003 ()2-s2.0-79951931347 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100803. Updated from submitted to published, 20120315. Previous title: Component from Pantograph Arcing in AC Traction System- Influencing Parameters, Impact and Mitigation Techniques

Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
7. Conducted and Radiated Emission from Pantograph Arcing in AC Traction System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducted and Radiated Emission from Pantograph Arcing in AC Traction System
Show others...
2009 (English)In: General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society Calgary, CANADA, JUL 26-30, 2009, New York: IEEE , 2009, 2700-2707 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One of the most common and yet unavoidable problems in electrified railways are because of pantograph arcing. The intensity of arcing increases during winter because of the ice layer on the overhead contact wire. In AC traction system, pantograph arcing distorts the sinusoidal waveforms of the supply voltage and current. It also generates transients at the current zero crossings (CZC). All these result in a net DC component, harmonics and radiated emission. In this paper we will present an experimental investigation to understand pantograph arcing and influence of power factor on conducted and radiated emission. We found that pantograph arcing generates both conducted and radiated emission in a wide band, starting from DC. Both the DC component and higher order conducted and radiated emission increases with line speed. Running the train at lower power factor can reduce the DC component and emerging as the most preferred solution against problems due to ice in cold weather.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2009
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting-PESGM
Keyword
Rail transportation, Rail transportation power systems, Electromagnetic compatibility, Electromagnetic interference, Arc discharges
National Category
Control Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14317 (URN)10.1109/PES.2009.5275833 (DOI)000275524901108 ()2-s2.0-77649300965 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-4240-9 (ISBN)
Conference
General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society Calgary, CANADA, JUL 26-30, 2009
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2011-03-04Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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