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Suitability of Dynamic Load Balancing in Resource-Constrained Embedded Systems:  An Overview of Challenges and Limitations
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). (Embedded Control Systems)
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). (Embedded Control Systems)
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). (Embedded Control Systems)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4300-885X
2008 (English)In: APRES-Proceedings / [ed] Luís Almeida, Sebastian Fischmeister, Insup Lee, Julián Proenza, 2008, 55-58 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we discuss the challenges and limitations of applying load balancing to networked and resource constrained embedded systems. The paper proposes a problem formulation and a checklist for guiding design and implementation of load balancing in such systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. 55-58 p.
Keyword [en]
Load balancing, distributed systems, networked embedded systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10593OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10593DiVA: diva2:220447
Conference
Workshop on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems (APRES'08), St. Louis, MO, USA, April 21, 2008
Note
QC 20101028Available from: 2009-06-01 Created: 2009-06-01 Last updated: 2010-11-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards Model-Based Development of Self-Managing Automotive Systems: Modeling, Simulation, Model Transformations and Algorithms: Supporting the Development of the DySCAS Middleware
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Model-Based Development of Self-Managing Automotive Systems: Modeling, Simulation, Model Transformations and Algorithms: Supporting the Development of the DySCAS Middleware
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the increased usage of electronics, embedded computer systems, software and networks in modern vehicles, the complexity is also increasing in terms of the development process, functionalities as well as their implementation. On one hand there is a need for efficient and systematic development, and on the other hand the systems are required to have enhanced post-deployment time configuration management support. This promises not only to reduce the time to market but also increase the development and maintenance efficiencies. Moreover, the possibility to adapt system behavior and structure by software can improve the overall traffic infrastructure, increase robustness and safety and at the same time enable changeable user defined configurations and addition of new features throughout a vehicle's life cycle. However, the dynamic configuration management characteristics increase software complexity and provide new failure modes. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate development support.

This thesis addresses model-based development and dynamic configuration management for automotive systems in context of the DySCAS project. The framework for dynamically self-configuring middleware from the DySCAS project is the main object of study. The major focus is on algorithms for dynamic reconfiguration, model transformation, modeling and simulation. Requirements for self-managing systems with self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization and self-protection characteristics and the simulation platforms for early analysis, verification and validation are also identified. A mapping scheme from UML™ to SimEvents™, evaluation of tools for simulating self-managing systems, simulations of dynamic reconfigurations and a foundation for a complete simulation environment are the major outcomes of this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. xii, 36 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009-12
Keyword
Dynamic Reconfiguration, DySCAS, Self-Managing Systems, Load Balancing, Quality of Service (QoS), Model-Based Development, Modeling, Simulation, Model Transformation, Middleware, Embedded Systems, Component Based Design, Unified Modeling Language (UML™), Discrete Event Systems, Real-Time Systems, Software Architecture, Simulink®, SimEvents™, Distributed Systems.
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10598 (URN)978-91-7415-374-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-06-10, A425, KTH, Brinellvägen 83, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-06-08 Created: 2009-06-01 Last updated: 2010-11-02Bibliographically approved
2. Adaptive Middleware for Self-Configurable Embedded Real-Time Systems: Experiences from the DySCAS Project and Remaining Challenges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Middleware for Self-Configurable Embedded Real-Time Systems: Experiences from the DySCAS Project and Remaining Challenges
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Development of software for embedded real-time systems poses severalchallenges. Hard and soft constraints on timing, and usually considerableresource limitations, put important constraints on the development. Thetraditional way of coping with these issues is to produce a fully static design,i.e. one that is fully fixed already during design time.Current trends in the area of embedded systems, including the emergingopenness in these types of systems, are providing new challenges for theirdesigners – e.g. integration of new software during runtime, software upgradeor run-time adaptation of application behavior to facilitate better performancecombined with more ecient resource usage. One way to reach these goals is tobuild self-configurable systems, i.e. systems that can resolve such issues withouthuman intervention. Such mechanisms may be used to promote increasedsystem openness.This thesis covers some of the challenges involved in that development.An overview of the current situation is given, with a extensive review ofdi erent concepts that are applicable to the problem, including adaptivitymechanisms (incluing QoS and load balancing), middleware and relevantdesign approaches (component-based, model-based and architectural design).A middleware is a software layer that can be used in distributed systems,with the purpose of abstracting away distribution, and possibly other aspects,for the application developers. The DySCAS project had as a major goaldevelopment of middleware for self-configurable systems in the automotivesector. Such development is complicated by the special requirements thatapply to these platforms.Work on the implementation of an adaptive middleware, DyLite, providingself-configurability to small-scale microcontrollers, is described andcovered in detail. DyLite is a partial implementation of the concepts developedin DySCAS.Another area given significant focus is formal modeling of QoS andresource management. Currently, applications in these types of systems arenot given a fully formal definition, at least not one also covering real-timeaspects. Using formal modeling would extend the possibilities for verificationof not only system functionality, but also of resource usage, timing and otherextra-functional requirements. This thesis includes a proposal of a formalismto be used for these purposes.Several challenges in providing methodology and tools that are usablein a production development still remain. Several key issues in this areaare described, e.g. version/configuration management, access control, andintegration between di erent tools, together with proposals for future workin the other areas covered by the thesis.

Abstract [sv]

Utveckling av mjukvara för inbyggda realtidssystem innebär flera utmaningar.Hårda och mjuka tidskrav, och vanligtvis betydande resursbegränsningar,innebär viktiga inskränkningar på utvecklingen. Det traditionellasättet att hantera dessa utmaningar är att skapa en helt statisk design, d.v.s.en som är helt fix efter utvecklingsskedet.Dagens trender i området inbyggda system, inräknat trenden mot systemöppenhet,skapar nya utmaningar för systemens konstruktörer – exempelvisintegration av ny mjukvara under körskedet, uppgradering av mjukvaraeller anpassning av applikationsbeteende under körskedet för att nå bättreprestanda kombinerat med e ektivare resursutnyttjande. Ett sätt att nå dessamål är att bygga självkonfigurerande system, d.v.s. system som kan lösa sådanautmaningar utan mänsklig inblandning. Sådana mekanismer kan användas föratt öka systemens öppenhet.Denna avhandling täcker några av utmaningarna i denna utveckling. Enöversikt av den nuvarande situationen ges, med en omfattande genomgångav olika koncept som är relevanta för problemet, inklusive anpassningsmekanismer(inklusive QoS och lastbalansering), mellanprogramvara och relevantadesignansatser (komponentbaserad, modellbaserad och arkitekturell design).En mellanprogramvara är ett mjukvarulager som kan användas i distribueradesystem, med syfte att abstrahera bort fördelning av en applikation överett nätverk, och möjligtvis även andra aspekter, för applikationsutvecklarna.DySCAS-projektet hade utveckling av mellanprogramvara för självkonfigurerbarasystem i bilbranschen som ett huvudmål. Sådan utveckling försvåras avde särskilda krav som ställs på dessa plattformarArbete på implementeringen av en adaptiv mellanprogramvara, DyLite,som tillhandahåller självkonfigurerbarhet till småskaliga mikrokontroller,beskrivs och täcks i detalj. DyLite är en delvis implementering av konceptensom utvecklats i DySCAS.Ett annat område som får särskild fokus är formell modellering av QoSoch resurshantering. Idag beskrivs applikationer i dessa områden inte heltformellt, i varje fall inte i den mån att realtidsaspekter täcks in. Att användaformell modellering skulle utöka möjligheterna för verifiering av inte barasystemfunktionalitet, men även resursutnyttjande, tidsaspekter och andraicke-funktionella krav. Denna avhandling innehåller ett förslag på en formalismsom kan användas för dessa syften.Det återstår många utmaningar innan metodik och verktyg som är användbarai en produktionsmiljö kan erbjudas. Många nyckelproblem i områdetbeskrivs, t.ex. versions- och konfigurationshantering, åtkomststyrning ochintegration av olika verktyg, tillsammans med förslag på framtida arbete iövriga områden som täcks av avhandlingen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. xv, 76 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:22
Keyword
adaptivity, embedded real-time systems, DySCAS, DyLite, quality of service (QoS), load balancing, resource constraints, model-based design, component-based design, software architecture, adaptive middleware
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11608 (URN)978-91-7415-495-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-11-19, B242, Department of Machine Design, KTH, Brinellvägen 83, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
DySCAS
Available from: 2009-11-25 Created: 2009-11-24 Last updated: 2010-10-28Bibliographically approved

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